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NOTES 


ON 


COLONIAL  NORTH  CAROLINA 

1700-1750 

i 


By  }.'  BRYAN  GRIMES 

1905 


NOTES 


ON 


COLONIAL  NORTH  CAROLINA 
1700-1750 


WRITTEN  FOR 

THE  NORTH  CAROLINA  BOOKLET 

By  J.  BRYAN  GRIMES 


C-icKn  "^'yuctK] 


REPRINTED  BY 

THE  NORTH  CAROLINA  HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION 

OCTOBER,  1905 


f^^"? 


o 


^iqD^ 


Tliis  article  first  appeared  in  the  North  Carolina  Booklet 
and,  as  it  contains  valuable  historical  information,  -which 
has  not  been  heretofore  published  and  is  not  easily  accessible 
to  the  people  of  the  State,  it  is  deemed  advisable  by  the  His- 
torical Commission  to  publish  it  in  separate  form  for  distri- 
bution, especially  to  libraries  and  students  of  iSTorth  Carolina 

history. 

W.  J.  Peele, 

Cltairmau  N.  C.  j 
()ct<)l>er  ."..  1005.    . 


Chairman  N.  C.  Historical  Cowniisaiou. 


^\'\& 


^ 


Q 


''Some  jSTotes  on  Colonial  I>[ortli  Carolina,  1700-1750" 
Avas  Avritten  at  the  request  of  the  editors  of  the  Xorth  Caro- 
lina Booklet  and  is  a  hastily  prepared  sketch  of  certain  phases 
of  the  life  of  our  people  in  that  period  of  our  history  which 
i-  least  known  and  most  misrepresented. 

Space  wonld  not  admit  of  an  article  of  sufficient  length  to 
give  a  satisfactory  or  comprehensive  view  of  Colonial  con- 
ditions in  Eastern  Xorth  Carolina,  bnt  enough  is  written, 
sustained  l)y  the  record,  to  s1ioa\^  that  our  painters  haxe 
clduded  rather  tlian  illumiued  the  canvas  in  making  the 
])i('riire  of  the  early  Carolinian.  From  notes  and  material 
:i1  liand  it  is  possible  that  later  a  better  considered  and  more 
extended  sketch  of  Colonial  North  Carolina  will  be  written. 

J.  Bryan  Grimes. 

October  5,  1905. 


o 


REFERENCES  WITH  ABBREVIATIONS. 


Hawks"  History  of  North  Carolina Hawlcs 

BrickelTs  Natural  History  of  North  Carolina, 

(Edition   of  1735), Brickell 

Lawson"s  History  of  Carolina   (Edition  of  1709),     ....     Lawson 

Martin's  History  of  North  Carolina, Martin 

Colonial  Records  of  North  Carolina, C.  R. 

Saunders'  Prefatory  Notes  to  Colonial  Records 

of  North  Carolina, S.    I*.    X. 

Bancroft's  History  of  the  United    States. 

(Edition  of  185G), Ban. 

Statutes  at  Large  of  Great  Britain    (Edition  of  17G3),     .     . 
CaiTolI's  Historical  Collections  of  South  Carolina,     .     .     .     Carr.  Coll. 
Chalmers'  Introduction  to  the  History  of  the 

Revolt  of  the  American  Colonies Chalmers 

Holmes'  Annals  of  America, Holmes'  Annals 

Lossings' Field  Book  of  the  Revolution  (Edition  of  1852),     .     Lossing 

Laws  of  North  Carolina,  Record  of  Grants,  Original  Papers,  Wills. 
Inventories,  Maps,  etc.,  in  the  Secretary  of  State's  Office. 


NOTES   ON    COLONIAL   NORTH    CAROLINA 

1700^1750. 


By  J.   BRYAN   GRIMES. 


In  writing  of  Colonial  Xorth  Carolina  I  can  not  do  a  bet- 
ter service  than  to  present  bare  facts  with  sources  of  infor- 
mation rather  than  give  an  expression  of  my  views  and  con- 
clusions as  to  social  conditions  in  our  province  before  1750. 
Before  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  we  had  no  press 
and  the  world  heard  of  us  only  from  the  print  of  the  out- 
sider w^ho,  from  jealousy,  ignorance  or  prejudice,  did  not  do 
us  justice.  Havirig  no  historian  of  our  own  in  Colonial  times, 
our  writers  have  relied  as  an  authority  upon  Chalmers,  whose 
every  chapter  w^as  a  continued  vituperation  or  misrepresenta- 
tion of  our  State.  George  Chalmers  was  born  in  Scotland, 
in  174-2,  and  "emigrated  to  Maryland  where  he  practiced 
law  for  ten  years,  till  the  troubles  of  the  Revolution  began, 
and  then  he  returned  to  England."  He  was  a  bitter  loyalist 
who  had  no  patience  wdth  the  spirit  of  American  indepen- 
dence. The  first  of  his  historical  works  was  published  in 
1781  during  the  Revolutionary  War. 

Of  our  history  Col.  Saunders  says :  "The  first  search 
made  in  London  for  information  in  regard  to  Xorth  Caro- 
lina affairs  was  doubtless  that  made  by  the  historian  George 
Chalmers,  who,  in  1780,  published  his  Political  Annals  of 
the  Present  United  Colonies,  the  fruit  of  his  labors  in  the 
British  Record  Office  to  which  the  official  position  he  held 
ga^'e  him  access.  This  volume  has  been  the  standard  au- 
thority with  all  later  Carolina  historians.  Its  general  ac- 
curacy as  to  matters  of  fact  is  by  no  means  perfect,  and  Mr. 


6        XoTEs  ON  Colonial  Xoktii  Carolina  1700-1750. 

Chalmers'  bitter  iDrejudices  as  a  loyalist  render  his  conclu- 
sions utterly  unreliable. 

At  a  later  date  the  historian  Williamson,  who  desired 
3opies  of  certain  papers  in  London  relating  to  Carolina, 
hoped  that  Mr.  Chalmers  would  furnish  him  therewith  or 
assist  him  in  obtaining  them.  Mr.  Chalmers  would  do 
neither  and  threatened  to  interfere  if  application  should 
be  made  to  the  head  of  the  proper  department." 

Let  us  glance  at  some  of  the  writings  of  this  ''standard 
authority  with  all  later  Xorth  Carolina  historians"  and  com- 
pare them  with  the  pages  of  Bancroft. 

Of  this  colony  just  before  the  Culpeper  rebellion  Chalmers 
says: 

"Originally  a  sprout  from  Virginia,  the  unprosperous 
plantation  of  l^orth  Carolina  naturally  produced  the  same 
unpleasant  fruits,  during  that  boisterous  season.  Alteration 
of  system,  no  less  than  change  of  governors  had  long  pre- 
vented the  revolt  of  a  colony,  which,  in  1675,  contained  only 
four  thousand  inhabitants,  who  derived,  unhappily,  no  bene- 
fit from  the  coercion  of  laws  or  the  influences  of  religion."  a 

Of  this  same  period  Bancroft  says : 

"The  government  had  for  about  a  year  been  left  in  what 
Royalists  called  '111  order  and  worse  hands.'  That  is,  it  had 
been  a  government  of  the  people  themselves,  favoring  popular 
liberty,  even  to  the  protection  of  the  friends  of  Colonial  In- 
dependence." h 

Chalmers  writes  again : 

"N^orth  Carolina  enjoyed  unusual  quiet  for  some  time 
after  the  expulsion  of  Sothell,  because  continued  anarchy 
often  prompts  a  desire  for  fixed  repose.  *  -^^  *  The 
most  inconsiderable  community  of  ISTorth  Carolina  has  never 
relinquished  the  flattering  gratifications  of  self-rule,  even 
when  they  were  inconvenient.     Having  refused  to  join  in 


a  dial.,  p.  1G6. 
&Ban.,   Vol.  2,  p.   157. 


XoTEs  ON  Colonial  Xoeth  Carolina  1700-1750.        7 

legislation  with  their  Southern  neighbors,  the  inhabitants 
were  delivered  over  to  their  discontents ;  having  denied  sub- 
mission to  the  Deputy-Governor  sent  them  from  Charleston, 
the  proprietaries  seem  in  despair  to  have  relinquished  them 
to  their  own  management,  in  1695,  without  inquiring  for 
seven  years   after,   whether  they  prospered  or   declined."  a 

In  contrast  to  the  above  Bancroft  w^rites : 

'"Here  was  a  double  grief  to  the  proprietaries ;  the 
rapacity  of  Sothell  w^as  a  breach  of  trust;  the  judgment 
of  the  Assembly  an  ominous  usurpation.  *  *  *  Xhe 
planters  of  North  Carolina  recovered  tranquility  so  soon  as 
they  escaped  the  misrule  from  abroad,  and  sure  of  am- 
nesty, esteemed  themselves  the  happiest  people  on  earth. 
They  loved  the  pure  air  and  clear  skies  of  their  'summer 
land.'"     *     *     * 

"The  planters  of  Albemarle  were  men  who  had  been  led 
to  the  choice  of  their  residence  from  a  hatred  of  restraint, 
and  had  lost  themselves  among  the  woods  in  search  of  inde- 
pendence. Are  there  any  who  doubt  man's  capacity  for  self- 
government,  let  them  study  the  history  of  ISTorth  Carolina ; 
its  inhabitants  were  restless  and  turbulent  in  their  imperfect 
submission  to  a  government  imposed  on  them  from  abroad ; 
the  administration  of  the  colony  was  firm,  humane  and  tran- 
quil when  they  were  left  to  take  care  of  themselves.  Any 
government,  but  one  of  their  own  institution,  was  oppres- 
sive. *  *  *  IsTorth  Carolina  was  settled  by  the  freest 
of  the  free ;  by  men  to  whom  the  restraints  of  other  colonies 
were  too  severe.  But  the  settlers  were  gentle  in  their  temp- 
ers, of  serene  minds,  enemies  to  violence  and  blood-shed. 
*  *  *  Freedom,  entire  freedom,  was  enjoyed  without 
anxiety  as  without  guarantees;  the  charities  of  life  were  scat- 
tered at  their  feet,  like  the  flowers  in  their  meadows ;  and 
the  spirit  of  humanity  maintained  its  influence  in  the  Ar- 


ff  Chalmers,  pp.   264,   399. 


8       XoTES  ON  Colonial  ISTorth  C^ieolina  1700-1750. 

cadia,  as  loyalist  writers  will  have  it,  of  'rogues  and  rebels' 
m  the  paradise  of  Quakers."  a 

After  a  half  page  of  sneers  at  E^orth  Carolina  to  cover  a 
period  of  her  liistorj,  he,  Chalmers,  ends  a  chapter  thus: 

"And  this  wretched  province  was  continually  branded  as 
the  general  receptacle  of  the  fugitive,  the  smuggler  and  the 
pirate ;  as  a  community,  destitute  of  religion  to  meliorate  the 
heart,  or  of  laws  to  direct  the  purpose  of  the  will,  *  *  * 
In  ISTorth  Carolina  disorder  is  said  to  have  continued  its 
natural  progress  from  the  epoch  of  its  settlement  to  the  ac- 
cession of  George  the  Second.  Destitute  of  the  kindly  in- 
fluences of  religion  and  of  law,  the  planters  acquired  peculiar 
habits  from  acting  a  singular  part  amidst  perpetual  tumult. 
*  ■"  *  Owing  to  his  usual  inattention,  the  Duke  of  IsTew- 
castle  sent  Burrington,  a  man  still  more  weak  and  corrupt, 
and  intemperate  than  his  predecessor  to  rule  such  a  people 
during  such  a  season.  *  *  *  In  April,  1733,  Johnston, 
a  domestic  of  Lord  Wilmington,  was  appointed  his  succes- 
sor, a  man  of  sufficient  knowledge  and  prudence,  but  whose 
experience  degenerated  a  little  into  cunning.  ^  *  * 
And  during  the  year  1749  Xorth  Carolina  was  found  to  'be 
a  little  better  than  an  asylum  for  fugitives  since  it  was  desti- 
tute of  any  regular  government.'  Such  are  the  unpleasant 
incidents  which  occupy  the  story  of  an  inconsiderable  set- 
tlement, that  gradually  filled  with  people  as  the  law  offered 
protection  to  the  vagabond,  as  every  one  lived  without  con- 
trol, and  all  enjoyed  in  security  what  a  trivial  labor  had 
gained."  h 

While  the  ISToi'th  Carolina  patriots  were  blazing  the  way 
for  American  independence,  and  a  year  or  two  before  their 
armed  resistance  to  Great  Britain,  this  man  Chalmers,  who 
for  a  century  was  accepted  as  authority  on  our  Colonial  his- 
tory, dismisses  us  from  history  in  these  words : 

"The  story  of  this  tumultous  settlement  is  from  this  period 

filled  with  nothing  but  the  play  of  parties,  the  wailings  of 

imbecility  and  the  complaint  of  recrimination."  c 

rrr.nn..  Vol.  2,  pp.  15S.  104,  1fi.5. 

7;rh;ilniers.  Vol.  2.  pp.  81,  103,  104,  105  and  107. 

rCliMl..   Vol.  2.   p.   .SOI. 


XoTEs  o^'  CoLoxiAi.  XoRTii  Caeolixa  1700-1750.       y 

In  the  earliest  time  of  our  colonization,  because  we  gave 
protection  to  the  defeated  patriot  followers  of  Bacon,  Gov. 
Berkeley  in  his  murderous  wrath  slandered  and  maligned  us. 

In  the  settlement  of  our  northern  boundary  line,  because 

we  could  not  be  outwitted  or  cajoled,  Col.  Byrd  ridiculed  us, 

and  the  peoj^le  who  were  esteemed  as  Virginians,  when  they 

were  found  to  reside  on  the  south  of  the  boundary  line,  were 

aspersed  as  JSTorth  Carolinians. 

When  Xorth  Carolina  spent  her  blood  and  treasure  in  the 
defence  of  other  colonies  especially  Virginia,  in  the  war 
against  the  French  and  Indians  on  the  Ohio,  Sparks,  writing 
of  the  Commander-in-Chief,  James  Innes,  and  his  Carolin- 
ians, gravely  and  seriously  remarks:  "But,  aside  from  the 
incompetency  of  this  officer,  he  was  an  inhabitant  of  Korth 
Carolina,  and,  as  such,  unacceptable  to  the  Virginia  troops"  a 

''111  fares  it  with  a  State  whose  history  is  written  by  others 
than  her  own  sons  !" 

For  a  century  and  a  half  no  native  Carolinian  attempted 
to  tell  the  story  of  his  people — we  had  neither  pen  nor  type 
to  speak  for  us.  Printing  was  introduced  into  Kortli  Caro- 
lina by  James  Davis  in  1749.  Previous  to  that,  time  our 
printing  was  done  in  London,  in  Virginia  and  at  Charleston. 

The  first  newspaper  we  had  was  in  176-4 — The  ISTorth  Car- 
olina Magazine  and  Universal  Intelligencer,  published  by 
James  Davis,  "on  a  demi-sheet  in  quarto  pages,  but  it  was 

a  The  Writings  of  Wasliington,  Vol.  2.  p.  2G2  note. 

*  Note.— Col.  Byrd,  in  spite  of  his  ridicule  of  our  peojile,  seemed  to 
think  well  of  our  soil  and  climate,  as  he  wrote  Gov.  Burrington  in 
1731 :  "It  must  he  owned  North  Carolina  is  a  very  happy  country 
where  people  mav  live  with  the  least  labor  that  they  can  in  any  part 
of  the  world."     C.  R.,  Vol.  .3.  p.  104. 

In  17.33  he  secured  twenty  thousand  acres  of  land  in  North  Caro- 
lina on  the  Virginia  line  of  which  he  writes  as  "the  Land  of  Eden." 
Gen.  Jas.  D.  Glenn  and  Hon.  R.  B.  Glenn  now  own  three  thousand 
acres  of  this  same  ti'act — Gov.  Glenn  informs  me  that  a  beech  tree, 
one  of  the  original  corners  of  the  Byrd  survey  is  still  standing  with 
the  initials  of  Col.  Byrd  cut  thereon.  This  tree  is  one  of  the  corners 
of  the  Glenn  estate,  and  is  now  fenced  and  carefully  protected  from 
depredations. 


10     XoTEs  ON  Colonial  jS^okth  Cakolina  1700-1750. 

filled  with  long  extracts  from  the  works  of  theological  writers, 
or  selections  from  British  magazines."  a 

Our  first  newspaper  controversy  of  which  I  find  record  was 
in  1732,  when  Gov.  George  Biirriugton  published  a  procla- 
mation in  Timothy's  Southern  Gazette  in  regard  to  our 
southern  boundary  line,  and  Gov.  Johnston  replied  with  a 
counter  proclamation,  setting  forth  South  Carolina's  claim 
in  the  same  issue."  h 

''The  second  newspaper  in  North  Carolina  was  called  the 
North  Carolina  Gazette  and  Weekly  Post  Boy.  It  was 
printed  at  Wilmington,  by  Andrew  Stewart,  a  Scotchman, 
and  contained  intelligence  of  current  events.  The  first  num- 
ber was  published  in  September,  1764.  The  Cape  Fear  Mer- 
cury was  established  by  Adam  Boyd  in  October,  1767.  Boyd 
was  a  zealous  patriot,  and  was  an  active  member  of  the  Com- 
mittee of  Safety  of  Wilmington."  c 

In  the  space  of  an  article  of  this  nature  it  will  be  impos- 
sible to  attempt  a  portrayal  of  conditions  in  ISTorth  Carolina 
in  the  colonial  period,  so  I  will  give  some  notes  on  North 
Carolina  before  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  when, 
with  the  fall  of  the  fortunes  of  the  house  of  Stuart,  that  great 
immigration  set  in  that  brought  many  thousands  of  Scot- 
land's best  people  to  us.  This  immigration  made  North 
Carolina  second  in  growth  and  development  to  no  province 


a  Los8ing. 

h  SiUUHlevs,  P.  N.,  Vol.  5,  36 ;  C.  R.,  Vol.  5,  373. 

c  Lossing. 

*  Note. — The  first  newspaper  in  America  was  at  Boston  in  1704 
called  the  Boston  News-Letter,  a  weekly  gazette  by  Bartholomew 
Green;  Holmes'  Annals,  Vol.  t,  p.  400,  and  until  1719  this  wns  the 
only  paper  printed  in  the  British  North  American  Colonies.  Printing 
was  first  introduced  into  Virginia  by  William  Parks  in  1720.  Holmes' 
Annals,  Vol.  1,  p.  530.  The  first  paper  published  in  Virginia  was 
issued  "at  Williamsburg  in  17.30.  a  sheet  about  twelve  inches  by  six 
in  size.  It  was  printed  weekly  by  William  Parks,  at  fifteen  shillings 
per  annum.  No  other  paper  was  published  in  Virginia  until  the 
Stamp  Act  excitement  in  170.5-0."  Lossing.  A  printing  house  was 
opened  in  Charleston  by  Eleazer  Phillips,  in  17.30,  who  died  the  fol- 
lowing yeai'.  Thomas  Whitemarsh  arrived  soon  after  with  a  press 
and  began  the  publication  of  a  newspaper,  the  first  printed  in  the 
Carolinas.     Holmes'  Annals. 


XoTES  OX  Colonial  Xortil  Carolina  1700-1750.      11 

in  America.  It  is  iinfortimate  that  we  had  no  contemporary 
chronicler  to  draw  a  true  picture  of  the  social  and  industrial 
conditions  of  those  times — the  home-life  of  our  people. 

The  absence  of  cities,  Avhicli  are  usually  the  literary  cen- 
ters, and  want  of  known  depositories  where  records  could  be 
collected  and  preserved,  has  permitted  the  destruction  of 
most  of  the  literature,  papers  and  personal  correspondence 
of  our  early  colonial  times.  This  absence  is  accounted  for 
by  an  historian  as  follows : 

"i^or  are  the  to^\^is  of  any  considerable  note.  This  last 
circumstance  is  owing  to  the  vast  commodiousness  of  water 
carriage,  which  every^vhere  presents  itself  to  the  plantations 
of  private  planters,  and  scarcity  of  handicraft."  a 

Such  papers  and  records  as  have  been  preserved  throw 
more  light  upon  the  public  and  political  questions  of  the  day 
than  upon  the  personal,  social  and  industrial  life  of  the  early 
Carolinian.  Probably  the  richest  sources  from  which  to 
gather  information  of  the  social  life  of  that  .day  are  the 
wills  and  inventories  filed  in  the  office  of  the  Secretary  of 
State.  This  is  a  field  of  exploration  that  will  yet  bring  out 
much  truth  and  make  a  fair  presentation  of  our  social  con- 
ditions of  which  we  will  not  be  ashamed.  ISTorth  Carolina 
authors  have  relied  for  the  picture  of  the  home-life  of  our 
people  largely  upon  the  writers  in  other  colonies,  who  have 
denied  us  justice,  and  in  some  cases  seemed  to  feel  it  neces- 
sary to  bolster  the  glories  of  their  own  colonies  by  disparag- 
ing N^orth  Carolina  and  making  comparison  therewith. 

I  do  not  intend  to  exaggerate  the  virtues  and  excellencies 
of  our  colonists,  but  will  try  to  give  a  brief  view  of  our 
province,  relying  on  the  cotemporary  records,  and  wherever 
possible,  quote  the  words  of  the  writers  which  paint  her 
just  as  she  was,  "warts  and  all." 

It  is  admitted  that  the  physical  conditions  of  a  country 
largely  determine  the  character,  industry  and  habits  of  its 

a  Holmes'  Annals,   Vol.  2,  p.   117. 


i-2     XoTEs  ().\  Colonial  Xorth  Carolina  1700-1750. 

people.  Under  the  second  charter  of  Charles  II,  Carolina 
embraced  over  a  million  square  miles.  It  included  all  the 
land  on  the  American  Continent  between  29  and  36  degrees 
30  minutes  Xorth  latitude.  The  northern  boundary  line  be- 
came the  line  of  the  famous  Missouri  Compromise.  After 
the  separation  of  iSTorth  Carolina  and  South  Carolina,  the 
northern  colony  was  confined  to  the  territory  between  34 
degrees  and  36.30  ^N".  latitude.  This  is  the  choicest  belt  of 
the  temperate  zone.  The  greatest  nations  of  the  earth  have 
been  the  product  of  this  latitude.  In  this  paper  we  will  have 
reference  only  to  that  part  of  ISTorth  Carolina  lying  on  the 
seaboard  and  watered  by  the  Chowan,  Roanoke,  Pamlico, 
Xeuse  and  Cape  Tear  rivers,  being  the  only  part  that  was 
settled  during  the  period  under  consideration.  The  coastal 
plain  region  of  ISTorth  Carolina  lies  in  "the  same  parallel  of 
latitude  as  the  central  Mediterranean  basin,  that  climatically 
most  favored  region  of  the  globe."  a 

Dr.  Emmons  says  "middle  and  Eastern  ISTorth  Carolina  cor- 
respond to  middle  and  Southern  France,  and  Western  ISTorth 
Carolina  to  N^orthern  France  and  Belgium — all  the  climates 
of  Italy  from  Palermo  to  Milan  and  Venice  are  represented." 

The  soil  of  Eastern  I^orth  Carolina  in  variety  and  fer- 
tility is  unsurpassed,  ranging  from  the  black  or  sandy  loam 
to  the  most  retentive  clays — our  rich  swamp  soils  show  "a 
greater  capacity  for  endurance  than  the  prairie  soils  of  Illi- 
nois." h 

For  agricultural  and  stock-raising  advantages,  the  climatic 
and  soil  conditions  in  tide-water  IvTorth  Carolina  are  un- 
equalled. With  a  mean  temperature  of  61  degrees  Fahren- 
heit, and  a  precipitation  of  55  inches,  everything  can  be 
raised  that  can  be  grown  in  the  ISTorth  temperate  zone.  So 
varied  are  her  agricultural  products  that  l^orth  Carolina  is 
the  onlv  State  that  fills  everv  divisional  column  of  the  cen- 


0  North  Carolina   and  its  Resources 
7)  Dr.    Emmons. 


XoTES  ON  Colonial  Xokth  Carolina  1700-1750.     13 

sus  reports.  One  viewing  the  State  with  a  critic's  eye  must 
exclaim  with  Hon.  W.  D.  Kelly,  of  Pennsylvania,  "uSTortli 
Carolina  is  the  fairest  portion  of  God's  earth  on  which  my 
feet  have  ever  rested."  a 

In  Barlowe's  account  of  his  first  voyage  to  K^orth  Carolina 
he  says :  ''The  soil  is  the  most  plentiful,  sweet,  fruitful  and 
wholesome  of  all  the  world." 

Robert  Ilorne,  writing  in  1664  of  the  Cape  Fear  Country, 
says :  h 

"Is  there  therefore  any  younger  brother  who  is  born  of 
gentle  blood  and  whose  spirit  is  elevated  above  the  common 
sort,  and  yet  the  hard  usage  of  our  country  hath  not  allowed 
a  suitable  fortune  ?  He  will  not  surely  be  afraid  to  leave 
his  native  soil  to  advance  his  fortunes  equal  to  his  blood  and 
spirit,  and  so  he  will  avoid  those  unlawful  ways  too  many 
of  our  young  gentlemen  take  to  maintain  themselves  accord- 
ing to  their  high  education,  having  but  small  estates ;  here, 
with  a  few  servants  and  a  small  stock,  a  great  estate  may  be 
raised,  although  his  birth  has  not  entitled  him  to  any  of  the 
land  of  his  ancestors,  yet  his  industry  may  supply  him  so 
as  to  make  him  the  head  of  as  famous  a  family.  Such  as 
are  here  tormented  with  much  care  how  to  gain  a  comfort- 
able livelihood,  or  that  with  their  labor  can  hardly  get  a 
suitable  subsistence,  shall  do  Avell  to  go  to  this  place,  where 
any  man  whatever,  that  is  but  willing  to  take  moderate  pains, 
may  be  assured  of  a  most  comfortable  subsistence,  and  be  in 
a  way  to  raise  his  fortunes  far  beyond  what  he  could  ever 
hope  for  in  England.  Let  no  man  be  troubled  at  the  thought 
of  being  a  servant  four  or  five  years,  for  I  can  assure  you 
that  many  men  give  money  with  their  children  to  serve  seven 
years,  to  take  more  pains  and  fare  nothing  so  well  as  the 
servants  on  this  plantation  will  do.  Then  it  is  to  be  con- 
sidered that  so  soon  as  he  is  out  of  his  time  he  has  land  and 


a  North  Carolina  and   its  Resources. 
h    Hawivs,  Vol.  2.  p.  41. 


14     jS'otes  on  Colonial  Xoeth  C.veolina  1700-1750. 

tools,  and  clothes  given  him,  and  is  in  a  way  of  advance- 
ment. Therefore  all  artificers — as  carpenters,  wheelwrights, 
joiners,  coopers,  bricklayers,  smiths,  or  diligent  husbandmen 
and  laborers,  that  are  willing  to  advance  their  fortunes,  and 
live  in  a  most  pleasant,  healthful  and  fruitful  country,  where 
artificers  are  of  high  esteem,  and  used  with  all  civility  and 
courtesy  imaginable  may  take  notice." 

Lawson  tells  us  that  in  1700  an  extensive  traveller  assured 
him  that  Carolina  was  the  best  country  he  could  go  to. 

In  writing  of  I^^orth  Carolina  Lawson  says : 

"A  second  Settlement  of  this  Country  was  made  about  fifty 
Years  ago,  in  that  part  we  now  call  Albemarl-Country,  and 
chiefly  in  Chuwon  Precinct,  by  several  substantial  Planters 
from  Virginia  and  other  Plantations ;  Who,  finding  mild 
Winters  and  fertile  Soil  beyond  Expectation,  producing  every- 
thing that  was  planted  to  a  prodigious  Increase;  their  Cattle, 
Horses,  Sheep  and  Swine,  breeding  very  fast,  and  passing  the 
Winters  without  any  Assistance  from  the  Planter ;  so  that 
everything  seemed  to  come  by  Nature,  the  Husbandman  liv- 
ing almost  void  of  Care,  and  free  from  those  fatigues  which 
are  absolutely  requisite  in  Winter-Countries.  *  *  * 
Xevertheless,  I  say,  the  Fame  of  this  new-discovered  summer 
country  spread  thro'  the  neighboring  Colonies,  and,  in  a  few 
Years,  drew  a  considerable  ISTumber  of  Families  thereto,  who 
all  found  Land  enough  to  settle  themselves  in  (had  there 
been  many  Thousand  more),  and  that  which  was  very  good 
and  commodiously  seated,  both  for  Profit  and  Pleasure.  And, 
indeed,  most  of  the  Plantations  in  Carolina,  naturally  enjoy 
a  noble  Prospect  of  large  and  spacious  Rivers,  pleasant 
Savannas  and  fine  meadows."     *     *     * 

"The  Planters  possessing  all  these  Blessings  and  the  Pro- 
duce of  great  Quantities  of  W^heat  and  Indian  Corn,  in  which 
this  Country  is  very  fruitful  as  likewise  in  Beef,  Pork,  Tal- 
low, Hides,  Deer-Skins  and  Furs;  For  these  Commodities  the 
Xew-England-J\[en  and  Bermudians  visited  Carolina  in  their 


XoTES  ojN"  Colonial  jSToktii  Cakolixa  1700-1750.      15 

iiarks  and  Sloops,  and  carry'd  out  what  they  made,  bringing 
them  in  Exchange  Rum,  Sugar,  Salt,  Molasses  and  some 
wearing  Aj)parel,  tho'  the  last  at  very  extravagant  prices." 
*  *  *  ''The  inhabitants  of  Carolina,  thro'  the  richness 
of  the  Soil  live  an  easy  and  pleasant  life.  *  *  ""  The 
country  in  general  affords  pleasant  Seats,  the  Land  (except  in 
some  few  places)  being  dry  and  high  banks,  parcell'd  out 
into  most  convenient  ]S[ecks  (by  the  Creeks),  easy  to  be 
fenced  in  for  securing  their  Stocks  to  more  strict  Boun- 
daries whereby,  with  a  small  trouble  of  fencing,  almost  every 
Man  may  enjoy,  to  himself,  an  entire  Plantation,  or  rather 
Park."  *  *  *  "j^Q  the  land  is  very  fruitful,  so  are  the 
Planters  hospitable  to  all  that  come  to  visit  them ;  there  being 
very  few  housekeepers  but  what  live  very  nobly  and  give 
away  more  Provisions  to  Coasters  and  Guests  who  come 
to  see  them,  than  they  expend  among  their  o^^^l  Families."  a 

''Carolina  was  settled'  under  the  auspices  of  the  wealthiest 
and  most  influential  nobility,  and  its  fundamental  laws  were 
framed  with  forethought  by  the  most  sagacious  politician 
and  the  most  profound  philosopher  of  England."  Later, 
"the  colonists  repudiated  the  Constitutions  of  Carolina," 
adopting  only  those  parts  most  suited  to  their  needs,  h 

The  early  settlers  of  ISTorth  Carolina  were  English,  from 
Virginia,  ISTew  England  and  Old  England  and  Barbadoes ; 
French  Huguenots  and  German  Palatines.  The  English  set- 
tled in  Albemarle  and  Bath  counties ;  the  French  on  Pamlico, 
jSTeuse  and  Trent  Rivers  in  Bath,  and  the  Germans  on  ISTeuse 
and  Trent.  The  Barbadians  who  first  settled  at  Cape  Fear  did 
not  follow  Yeamans  to  South  Carolina.  They  went  up  to  the 
Albemarle  settlement  and  to  ISTansemond  County,  in  Virginia, 
in  part,  and  in  part  to  Boston.  In  this  fact  is  to  be  found  an 
easy  explanation  of  the  increase  at  this  time  in  Albemarle 
both  from  ]^ew  England   and  from  Barbadoes.  c 


a  Lawson,   pp.   63,   64. 

7j  Bancroft,    Vol.    2,    p.    128. 

cS.  P.  N.,  Vol.  1,  p.  10. 


10        XOTKS  0.\    C'OLOMAL   XoKTH   CaUOLIA'A   iTOO-lToO. 

Those  iu  jS'ew  England  kept  up  their  relations  with 
their  kinsmen  in  North  Carolina.  The  Isew  Eng- 
land skipper  and  trader  practically  controlled  the  com- 
merce of  this  province  by  exchanging  their  manufactures 
for  our  produce.  There  was  increasing  immigration  from 
New  England  to  North  Carolina  which  continued  until  the 
Civil  War  of  1861. 

In  1700  t]iere  Avere  only  about  five  thousand  people  in  the 
province — at  the  beginning  of  the  Tuscarora  War  there  w^ere 
ten  or  eleven  thousand  inhabitants.  Bath  County  was  the 
seat  of  this  war.  This  county  embraced  Pampticough,  Wick- 
ham  and  Archdale  precincts,  and  extended  into  the  wilder- 
ness on  the  South  and  West.  Pampticough  and  Wickham 
precincts  covered  the  territory  between  the  Roanoke  and 
Pamlico  Rivers.  Archdale  precinct  claimed  the  land  between 
Pamlico  and  Neuse  rivers,  and  also  the  Neuse  settlements 
on  both  sides  Neuse  River,  a  These  precincts  are  now  Beau- 
fort, Hyde  and  Craven  Counties. 

At  the  time  of  the  Tuscarora  war  the  Avhite  settlers  were 
fringed  along  the  coast  and  the  Indians  occupied  all  other 
lands.  Chocowinity  was  the  frontier,  and  tradition  says  that 
on  the  morning  of  the  Indian  massacre  John  Porter's  house 
at  Chocowinity  was  the  first  to  be  fired.  On  the  Roanoke 
were  the  forts  of  the  Cheeweo  and  Resootska.  On  the  Tar 
near  the  present  to-^ATi  of  Washington,  was  Nakay — there  was 
also  a  fort  just  about  two  miles  above  Bear  Creek,  on  what 
is  still  known  as  Indian  Fort  branch  on  Grimesland  planta- 
tion. * 


«  C.  R.  Vol.  1.  p.  620. 

*  Note. — A  field  of  about  ten  acres  cleared  by  the  Indians  on  Indian 
Fort  Branch  in  the  west  corner  of  a  seventy -five-acre  field  (Pridgen 
cut)   is  still  in  cultivation. 


^OTES  OX  COLOXIAL  ^ORTH  CaEOLINA  1700-1750.        17 

Further  up  the  Tar  about  two  or  three  miles  below  the 
present  town  of  Greenville  was  King  Blount's  town,  Uco- 
lineruut.  On  the  Contentnea  were  Conneghta,  Tahunta  and 
Hookerooka  Forts  and  Hancock's  town.  a.  To  the  South 
and  West  was  the  unknown  wilderness  and  the  Indian  towns 
of  Keeouwee  (old  town)  Totero  Fort,  Uharee,  Acconee- 
chv,  etc.  * 

After  the  war  most  of  the  Tuscaroras  went  to  their  kin- 
dred in  Xew  York.  King  Blount  and  his  people  were  given 
a  reservation  between  Tar  and  JSTeuse  River,  but  were  soon 
moved  at  his  own  request  to  lands  on  Roanoke  River  where 
fifty-three  thousand  (5r3,000)  acres  were  given  them  in  Ber- 
tie County,  and  a  fort  was  built  for  their  defence  from 
enemy  Indians,  h  Here  they  lived  under  their  Kings,  Tom 
Blount  and  his  son,  James  Blount,  many  years.  They  were 
afterw'ards   joined  by  the   Supponees   and   the     Chowans.  c 


a  See  map  Eman.  Bowea. 

h  C.  R.,  Vol.  2,  pp.  283,  484,  496. 

c  C    R.,  Vol.  3,  p.  538. 

*  Note. — In  the  preliminary  articles  of  peace  signed  November 
25tb,  1712,  between  Major  General  Thomas  Pollock  for  the  colonists 
and  Tom  Blount,  Saroonba,  Hounthanobnoh,  Chaunthorunthoo,  Ne- 
woonttootsery  and  Herunttocken  for  a  number  of  Indian  towns,  it 
was  agreed  among  other  things :  "Imprimis,  The  afsd  great  men 
Doe  hereby  Covenant  &  agree  to  &  with  ye  said  presidt  &  Councill 
that  they  shall  and  will,  with  ye  utmost  expedition  &  Dilligence, 
make  Warr  agt.  all  ye  Indyans  belonging  to  ye  Townes  or  Nations 
of  Catechny,  Cores,  Nuse  &  Bare  River  and  pamptico.  and  that  they 
shall  not  nor  will  not  give  any  Quarter  to  any  male  Indyan  of  those 
Towns  or  Nations  above  ye  Age  of  fourteen  yeares,  and  also  that 
they  shall  &  will  sell  off  &  dispose  of  all  ye  males  under  that  age. 
And  that  further,  after  they  shall  have  destroy'd  those  townes  or 
soe  soone  as  this  Governm't  shall  think  proper  to  require  it  the  said 
great  men  doe  hereby  promise  to  Join  ye  English  with  Soe  menny  Men 
as  may  be  thought  proper  to  destroy  &  cutt  off  all  ye  Matchepungo 
Indyans.     *     *     * 

4thly. — It  is  hereby  farther  Agreed  by  ye  Great  Men  af-sd  that 
these  Severall  Townes  of  Tostehant,  Rauroota,  Tarhuntah,  Keutah, 
Toherooka,  Juninits  &  Caunookehee,  nor  any  of  ye  Indyans  belonging 
to  them  or  either  of  them,  shall  not  nor  will  not  Hunt  nor  rainge 
among  ye  English  plantations  nor  Stocks  without  leave,  nor  then 
above  ye  number  of  three  at  one  tyme.  neither  shall  they  Claime  any 
property  in  ye  lands  on  ye  South  Side  of  Nuse  called  Chatookae 
River,  nor  below  Catachney  Creek  on  Nuse,  nor  below  Bare  Creek 
ate  not-sha-hun-han-rough  on  ye  Noth  (south)  side  of  pamptico 
river."    See  original  treaty  framed  in  State  Hall  of  History. 


18     XoTEs  OK  CoLo:s'iAL  XoRTii  Cakolixa  1700-1750. 

These  Indians  also  removed  to  jSTew  York,  but  they  held 
their  lands  on  the  Koanoke  and  collected  rents  for  them  well 
on  into  the  nineteenth  century,  a 

The  Indians  remaining  in  the  province  about  1730,  through 
their  Chiefs,  King  Tom  Blount,  of  the  Tuscaroras;  King 
Hoyter,  of  the  Chowans,  and  King  Durant,  of  the  Yawpims, 
paid  a  yearly  tribute  to  the  Governor.  6 

The  Tuscarora  war  and  the  hardships  following  caused 
many  people  to  leave  the  province,  but  this  war  was  a  bless- 
ing in  disguise.  As  soon  as  the  Indian  troubles  were  finally 
disposed  of,  settlers  sought  the  desirable  lands  higher  up  on 
the  Roanoke,  Tar  and  l^euse  Rivers  and  their  tributaries. 
In  a  few  years  settlements  were  begun  on  the  Cape  Fear. 
In  the  war  we  were  aided  by  South  Carolina  and  some  of 
her  leading  citizens  were  so  favorably  impressed  with  our 
country  that  many  of  them  and  their  friends  soon  moved 
here. 

From  a  population  of  eleven  thousand  two  hundred  (seven 
thousand  five  hundred  white,  three  thousand  seven  hundred 
negro)  in  1715  c  just  after  the  Indian  war  the 
province  of  N^orth  Carolina  had  grown  to  thirty-six  thousand, 
in  1730  at  the  end  of  the  Proprietary  period.  From  that 
time  until  the  Revolution  probably  no  province  in  America 
grew  faster  in  Avealth  and  population.  In  1752  our  popula- 
tion was  ninety  thousand  d,  seventy  thousand  white,  twenty 
thousand  negro,  having  been  tripled  in  twenty  years. 

The  Indian  captives,  more  than  six  hundred,  taken  by 
Cols.  Barnwell  and  Moore  and  their  soldiers  and  ally  In- 
dians, were  sent  to  South  Carolina  as  slaves.  Those  taken 
by  our  people  were  sold  into  slavery  in  the  West  Indies  or 
kept  in  bondage  here.  An  Indian  slave  was  valued  at  about 
£10,   and   was   generally  sold   away   from   home.      ITegroes 


aC.  R..  Vol.  7,  p.  248. 
6C.  R.,  Vol.  4,  pp.  34,  446. 
c  Chalmers. 
a  S.  P.  N..  Vol.  4.  22. 


XoTES  02s  Colonial  Xorth  Caeolina  1700-1750.     19 

commanded  higher  prices  as  they  were  more  docile  and  ca- 
pable of  greater  labor. 

In  the  Indian  war  our  ally  Indians  were  offered  "a  reward 
of  six  blankets  for  the  head  of  each  man  of  the  said  Indians 
killed  by  the  (friendly)  Tuscaroras,  and  the  usual  price  of 
slaves  for  each  woman  and  child  delivered  captives."  a 
The  white  people  after  capturing  Indians  sometimes 
indulged  in  barbarities,  as  DeGraffenreid  gives  us  an  account 
of  the  roasting  of  an  Indian  King  in  1711.  b 

Even  as  late  as  1760  a  law  was  passed  making  Indian 
captives  slaves  and  "the  absolute  right  and  property  of  who 
shall  be  the  captor  of  such  Indian,"  and  ten  pounds  was 
given  for  an  Indan  scalp  taken  by  a  citizen,  and  five  pounds 
was  given  for  a  scalp  captured  by  a  solider.  To  some  of 
our  people  it  seemed  profitable  for  the  Indians  to  raise  dis- 
turbances, but  this  province  was  never  directly  charged  with 
inciting  them  to  war  for  sinister  purposes.  Of  one  of 
our  neighbors  an  historian  says :  "This  province  long  con- 
tinued 'that  barbarous  practice'  which  was  then  introduced 
(1680)  of  promoting  Indian  hostility  that  they  might  gain 
by  the  traffic  of  Indian  slaves."  c 

"The  moving  causes  of  immigration  to  Albemarle  were  its 
delightful  climate,  magnificent  bottom  lands  and  bountiful 
products."  d 

Land-holding  gave  dignity  and  importance.  The  large 
land-holders,  then  as  now,  wielded  great  influence  in  their 
commimities.  They  were  the  aristocracy  of  the  country  and 
the  governing  classes ;  their  sons  inheriting  prestige  and 
leadership  with  their  estates. 

Many  of  the  early  settlers  came  from  other  colonies  for 
the  rich  lands  along  our  river  bottoms,  which  were  found  to 
be  cheap,  fertile  and  abundant.     These  "river  plantations" 


oC.  R.,  Vol.  ],  p.  15. 
bC.  R.,  Vol.  1.  p.  946. 
c  Chalmers,  Vol.  2,  p.  172. 

d  Siinnrlprs 


d  Saunders 


20     XoTEs  ON  Colonial  ISTorth  Carolina  1700-1750. 

of  Xorth  Carolina  and  the  South  were  to  become  famous  all 
over  the  world.  Land  could  be  easily  secured.  A  planter 
starting  life  with  modest  beginnings  would,  by  the  productive- 
ness of  this  soil  and  the  natural  fruitfulness  of  his  slaves, 
horses,  cattle  and  hogs,  die  rich  in  old  age. 

Brickell,  who  for  awhile  lived  at  Edenton,  writing  about 
1735  says  the  Albemarle  Country  was  settled  by  ''Persons 
from  Virginia  and  other  I^orthern  Colonies  who,  finding  the 
Soil  so  very  good  and  fertile,  settled  here,  and  are  become 
very  IS[unierous  and  Rich;  for  the  lands  here  produce  every- 
thing Planted  in  them  in  great  abundance.  Horses,  Cows, 
Sheep  and  Swine  breeding  in  vast  numbers,  the  winter  being 
very  short,  and  that  so  mild  that  the  Planters  are  at  little  or 
no  Labour  or  Expense  in  providing  Eodder  for  their  Stock 
to  what  other  jSTortherly  Countries  are."  a 

Among  the  planters  were  gentry  who  lived  as  much  like 
their  relations  in  England  and  Scotland  as  conditions  in  a 
sparsely  settled  country  would  admit.  Some  of  the  early 
planters  came  here  in  official  positions  as  deputies  of  the 
Lords  Proprietors,  bringing  with  them  their  friends,  retain- 
ers and  tenants.  With  the  various  governors  came  their 
kinsmen,  supporters  and  adherents.  An  examination  of  the 
wills  in  the  office  of  the  Secretary  of  State  Avill  show  from 
the  signatures  with  seals  bearing  imprinted  theron  crests 
and  coats  of  arms  of  signers,  that  many  of  the  leading  men 
of  Carolina  belonged  to  the  gentry  of  England  and  Scot- 
land. Many  of  them  were  highly  educated  and  classical 
scholars  of  great  learning.  The  drafts  of  old  laws,  state 
papers,  wills  and  letters  of  that  day  will,  in  phraseology 
and  elegance  of  diction,  compare  most  favorably  with  the 
productions  of  the  best  scholars  of  to-day. 

At  the  close  of  the  Proprietary  period,  it  may  not  be  far 
wrong  to  suggest  tliat  the  per  cent  of  highly  educated  and 
leading  men  in  the  eolmiy  in  proportion  to  population  (which 

a  Bvifkell,  p.  0. 


iSToTEs  ON  Colonial,  jS[okth  Carolina  1700-1750.     21 

was  thirty-five  thousand)  was  as  great  as  it  is  in  iSTorth 
Carolina  to-day,  but  the  masses  for  many  years  had  little 
opportunity  for  education. 

Of  the  great  families  of  the  province  at  that  time,  during 
the  second  quarter  of  the  eighteenth  century,  may  be  men- 
tioned the  Swanns,  Porters,  Gales,  Moseleys,  Moores,  Pol- 
locks, Vails,  Blounts,  Bryans,  Maules,  Ashes,  Johnstons, 
Herritages  and  others.  It  is  safe  to  say  that  in  honor,  char- 
acter, virtue  and  accomplishments,  they  were  not  excelled 
by  any  families  on  the  American  continent.  They  were 
people  of  education,  refinement,  culture  and  abundance. 
Without  great  wealth  they  lived  in  comfort  and  plenty.  With 
lands,  slaves,  books,  plate,  horses  and  carriages  they  were 
leaders  in  a  social  life  that  rivaled  the  best  in  the  adjoining 
colonies. 

The  early  settlers  took  up  the  choicest  lands  on  the  rivers 
to  such  an  extent  that  laws  were  passed  to  prevent  the  entering 
of  too  much  land  on  the  rivers  to  the  exclusion  of  other  set- 
tlers. In  laying  out  the  lands  the  enterer  was  at  first  al- 
lowed to  take  up  640  acres  or  a  square  mile  in  one  tract 
on  the  river,  a,  but  the  act  further  proA'ided  that 
the  surveyor  should  not  "lay  out  two  several  tracts 
of  land  for  any  one  person  within  two  miles  at 
least  of  each  other,  unless  by  particular  warrant  from  the 
Lords  Proprietors  for  that  purpose."  It  must  have  been 
easy  to  obtain  this  "particular  warrant  from  the  Lords  Pro- 
prietors for  that  purpose,"  or  the  law  was  not  strictly  ob- 
served, as  we  find  many  men  in  the  province  owning  large 
bodies  of  land  before  iSTorth  Carolina  became  a  Royal 
Province.  Of  the  large  landed  proprietoi-s,  some  of  them 
owning  as  much  as  fifty  thousand  acres,  may  be  mentioned 
George  Burrington,  Frederick  Tones,  Eoger  Moore,  Edward 
Moseley,  Maurice  Moore,  John  Lovick,  William  Maule,  Dr. 
Patrick  ^^laule,  Seth  Sothell,  Robert  Porster,  Martin  Franks, 

a  Chap.  33,  See.  4,  Laws  171.5. 


22     XoTEs  ox  CoLo:s'iAL  XoETii  Cakolina  1700-1750. 

Christopher  Gale,  John  Porter,  Thomas  Pollock,  Cullen  Pol- 
lock, ^Yillialu  Stephenson,  John  Baptista  Ashe  and  others.  * 
To  prevent  non-residents  entering  land  for  speculation,  one 
was  required  to  have  resided  in  the  province  for  two  years 
before  they  could  sell  their  rights  and  lands,  a  All 
persons  entering  land  were  required  to  pay  on  the 
29th  of  September  one  shilling  for  every  fifty  acres  as 
quit  rents,  and  were  to  be  allowed  three  years  to  seat  and 
plant,  and  the  patentee  was  required  to  build  a  habitable 
house  and  to  clear  and  fence  and  plant  at  least  one  (1)  acre 
of  land  within  the  time  limited,  h  In  the  Coun- 
cil Journal  March  31,  1726,  we  read:  "For  saving 
of  lands  for  the  future,  every  house  shall  be  fifteen  foot  long, 
ten  Broad,  Made  tight  and  habitable  of  Clapboards  or  Loggs 
squared,  with  a  roof  and  chimney-place  and  a  Door-place 
The  whole  acre  cleared  well,  the  major  part  of  it  broke  up 
and  planted  with  either  fruite,  trees  or  grain."  c 
The  large  land-owners  probably  built  one  or  two 
log  houses  on  each  tract  of  land,  and  placed  thereon  an  over- 
seer with  several  slaves.  The  overseers  were  frequently  in- 
dentured servants  in  bond  or  those  who  had  served  their  term 
and  were  in  the  employment  of  their  former  masters.  They 
were  sometimes  hired  for  wages,  but  often  for  a  part  of  the 
produce  of  the  land.  The  customary  wages  being  "for  which 
Service  he  is  allowed  every  seventh  Calfe,  seventh  Pole  and 
half  of  all  young  hogs  that  are  bred  during  his  stewardship, 

a  Laws  1715,  C.  2. 

6  Laws  1715,  Ch.  26. 

cC.  R.,  Vol.  2,  p.  607. 

*  Note. — Bernheim,  Vann  and  other  writers  say  Martin  Franks 
came  to  North  Carolina  in  1732.  This  is  an  error.  He  was  treasurer 
of  Craven  precinct  before  that  time  (Page  manuscript  laws,  in 
Everard's  time)  and  was  one  of  the  signers  of  a  petition  in  1711-12. 
(Hawks.)  In  Grant  records.  Book  2,  page  254,  is  recorded,  Apr. 
14,  17.30,  a  grant  in  Craven  Precinct,  Bath  County,  to  Martin  Franks 
for  Ten  thousand  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  (10,175)  acres.  The 
grant  recites  that  "All  of  which  land  was  granted  to  the  sd  Martin 
Frank  by  a  warrant  dated  .Tune  1.5th,  1711." 


Notes  on  Colonial  ]S[or.Tii  Carolina  1700-1750.     23 

and  likewise  the  seventh  part  of  all  sorts  of  grain  and  to- 
bacco that  is  produced  on  the  said  plantation."  a  * 

The  slaves  also  made  tar  and  turpentine  in  the  spring  and 
summer  season,  clearing  land  in  the  fall  and  winter;  the 
women  and  children  worked  the  corn  raising  sufficient  for 
the  men  and  animals. 

During  the  wars  between  England  and  France,  the  Swedish 
merchants,  wdio  controlled  the  naval  stores  trade  of  the  world, 
put  the  price  of  tar  to  such  an  extortionate  figure  that  Eng- 
land gave  bounties  to  her  colonists  to  produce  it,  **  About 
1704,  ISTorth  Carolina  commenced  its  production,  and  for  two 
hundred  years  it  has  been  one  of  the  chief  products  of  the 
State.  In  the  year  1753  North  Carolina  exported  61,528 
barrels  of  tar;  12,052  do.  of  pitch;  10,429  do.  turpentine, 
762,000  staves;  61,580  bus.  corn,  100  (?)  lihd^.  tob-cco,  and 
about  30,000  deer  skins,  besides  lumber  and  other  commodi- 
ties. In  1708  the  exports-  from  all  America  was  6,089  bar- 
rels of  pitch  and  tar  to  England,  h 

ffBrickell,  p.  269. 
I)  Chalmers. 

*  Note. — lu  Carroll's  Historical  Collections  of  South  Carolina,  Vol. 
2,  p.  201,  we  are  told  that  overseers,  when  hired  for  wages,  were 
paid  fifteen  to  forty  povmds  per  annum,  and  laborers  from  one  shill- 
ing and  three  pence  to  two  shillings  a  day  "with  Lodging  and  Diet." 

*     *     * 

**  The  following  is  taken  from  the  English  Statutes  at  Large,  Vol.  4, 
1000-171.3. 

"Chap.  X.  1704— 

**  An  Act  for  encouraging  the  importation  of  Naval  Stores  from  her 
Majesty's  plantations  in  America. 

*  *  *  any  of  the  naval  stores  hereafter  mentioned,  shall  have 
and  enjoy,  as  a  Reward  or  Praemium  for  such  Importation,  after 
and  according  to  the  several  rates  for  such  Naval  Stores  as  fol- 
lows,  viz : 

II.  For  good  and  merchantable  Tar  per  Tun,  containing  eight 
Barrels,  and  each  Barrel  to  gage  thirty-one  Gallons  and  an  half. 
Four  Pounds. 

For  good  and  merchantable  Pitch  per  Tun,  each  Tun  containing 
twenty  Gross  hundreds  (Net  Pitch)  to  be  brought  in  eight  barrels, 
four   Pounds.    ' 

For  good  and  merchantable  Rozin  or  Turpentine  per  Tun.  each 
Tun  containing  twenty  Gross  hundred  (Net  Rozin  or  Turpentine)  to 
be  brought  in  eight  Barrels,  three  Pounds. 

For  Hemp.  Water  rotted,  bright  and  clean,  per  Tun.  each  Tun 
containing  twenty   Gross   hundreds,   six  Pounds. 

For  all  Masts.  Yards  and  Bowsprits,  per  Tun,  allowing  forty  Foot 
to  each  Tun.  Girt  measure,  according  to  the  customary  way  of 
measuring  round  bodies,  one  Pound. 

This  Act  was  later  repealed.) 


24     XoTES  oi^  Colonial  Xorth  CakoliNx^.  1700-1750. 

Every  planter  of  ordinary  thrift  soon  became  independent. 
In  the  most  primitive  period  of  onr  history  the  first  houses 
of  the  planters  were  built  of  logs.  The  house  was  of  notched 
logs  and  was  probably  such  as  is  seen  in  many  sections  of 
the  State  to-day.  Between  the  logs  were  fastened  split  poles 
which  were  chinked  with  mud.  The  chimneys  were  mostly 
wooden,  the  base,  body  and  brast  of  chimney  being  logged 
up  to  the  funnel,  after  which  a  square  pen  or  stack  of  sticks 
was  made  and  daubed  inside  and  out  with  clay  to  cement 
together  and  to  protect  from  burning.  The  inside  of  the 
fire-place  was  covered  with  mud  in  the  same  way.  Lumber 
was  scarce  and  expensive,  and  such  as  they  had  was  sawed 
by  hand  in  saw-pits  or  imported  from  Boston,  a  It  was  prob- 
ably about  1730,  before  saw  mills  made  their  appearance  in 
ISTorth  Carolina,  h  Just  before  1750  these  mills  sawed  about 
150,000  feet  a  year. 

Col.  Byrd,  in  his  "History  of  the  Dividing  Line,"  c  says : 
''Most  of  the  houses  in  this  part  of  the  Country  are  log 
houses,  covered  with  Pine  or  Cypress  shingles  three  feet 
long  and  one  broad.  They  are  hung  upon  laths  with  PeggS; 
and  their  doors  too  turn  upon  Wooden  Hinges,  and  have 
Wooden  Locks  to  secure  them,  so  that  the  Building  is  finisht 
without  nails  or  other  iron  work." 

It  may  be  interesting  to  note  what  was  regarded  as  a 
habitable  house  as  shown  by  the  size  of  liouses  required  to  be 
built  in  the  various  towns  within  eighteen  months  or  two 
years  after  purchasing  lots.  Pollock  in  1720  required  that 
the  houses  built  on  lots  in  ISTew  Bern  (which  town  he  OA\Tied) 
should  be  "not  less  than  Fifteen  Foot  square."  d  As 
late  as  1756,  eighteen  months'  time  was  given  for 
building  on  lots  taken  up,  and  a  habitable  house  of  sixteen 


a  Thomas  Pollock's  Will. 

I)  C.  R.,  Vol.  -.i.  pp.  427,  4.32,  (1732)  ;  C.  R.,  Vol.  4.  pp.  52,  Gl,  (1735). 

0  Vol.  1.  p.  5!). 

d  C.  R..  Vol.  2,  p.  386. 


XoTES  ON  Colonial  Xoetii  Caeolusta  1700-1750.     25 

feet  by  twenty-four  feet  required,  a  In  Edenton  h  houses  were 
required  to  be  ''not  of  less  Dimensions  than  Twenty  Feet  long, 
Fifteen  Feet  in  width  and  Eight  Feet  in  Height  between  the 
first  floor  and  the  joists,"  and  no  wooden  chimneys  were 
allowed  to  be  built  there  after  the  first  day  of  May,  1741.  c 
At  Brunswick  houses  were  to  be  20  feetxlG  feet,  d  When 
the  to^\^l  of  Johnston,  in  Onslow,  which  was  afterwards  de- 
stroyed by  a  wind  storm  in  September,  1752,  e  was  incorpor- 
ated/ the  inhabitants  buying  lots  were  required  to  build  within 
two  years  a  "good,  substantial  habitable  frame-house  not  of 
less  dimensions  than  Twenty  Four  feet  in  length  and  Six- 
teen feet  wide,  besides  sheds  and  Leantos."  When  Capt. 
Richard  Sanderson  attempted  to  build  a  town  on  Roanoke 
Island  g  it  was  required  that  the  houses  should  be  20  feetxlS 
feet.  In  the  establishment  of  ISTewtown  (which  afterwards 
became  Wilmnigton),  it  was  made  a  town,  "Provided,  the 
Inhabitants  thereof  do,  within  the  space  of  two  years  from 
the  date  hereof  build  and  erect  six  Brick  HoiTses  in  the  princ- 
ipal streets,  of  forty  feet  long  and  thirty  feet  deep."  li  When 
the  village  of  ISTewton  was  changed  into  the  town  of  Wil- 
mington i  it  was  required  that  before  one  was  allowed  to  vote 
for  a  representative  for  the  said  town  in  the  General  As- 
sembly he  must  be  "a  Tenant  of  a  Brick,  Stone  or  framed 
habitable  House,  of  the  Length  of  Twenty  Feet,  and  Sixteen 
Feet  Broad ;  or  an  inhabitant  of  a  Brick  House  of  the  Length 
of  Thirty  Feet,  and  Sixteen  Feet  Broad,  between  the  Bounds 
of  said  Town,  upwards,  and  Smith's  Creek,  and  within  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty  Poles  to  the  Cape  Fear  River."     This 


a  Laws  1756.  Ch.  12. 
ftLaws,  1740,  Ch.  1,  Sec.  2. 
r-Laws  1740.  Ch.  1.  See.  13. 
rtLaws  1745.  Ch.  12,  Sec.  8. 
e  Martin.  Vol.  2.  p.  Gl. 
fLaws  1741.  Ch.   12,   Sec.  6. 
a  Laws  1715,  Ch.  59. 
1}  C.  R.,  Vol.  4,  p.  43. 

/Laws  1739,  Ch.  4,  Sees.  4  aucl  5,  and  Laws  1740,  Ch.  4,  Sees.  7 
aucl  8. 


26     KoTES  ON  Colonial  aSToETH  Carolina  1700-1750. 

was  probably  intended  to  include  several  of  the  prominent 
men  who  lived  near  to  town. 

The  planters  lived  upon  their  estates  with  residences  gen- 
erally more  pretentious  than  the  town  houses.  A  few  of  these 
houses  were  of  brick,  but  they  were  commonly  frame  houses. 
Some  of  them  were  of  considerable  dimensions  even  early  in 
the  eighteenth  century.  There  were  few  brick  houses  in 
iS^ort]]  Carolina.  Even  after  the  planters  became  wealthy 
they  did  not  affect  them.  In  a  humid  climate  brick  houses 
were  probably  damp  and  unhealthy.  In  ISTew  Bern  there 
were  only  two  brick  dwelling  houses  as  late  as  1792.  a 

There  are  to-day  standing  houses  of  well-to-do  planters 
that  were  built  prior  to  1750.  Some  of  them  brick,  but 
mostly  of  wood.  These  houses  are  about  forty  feet  long  and 
twenty  feet  wide,  to  which  are  added  shed  rooms  or  "leantos." 
The  basements  or  cellars  are  about  7  or  8  feet  pitch,  the  walls 
to  the  cellar  being  massive  masonry  of  rock,  the  rock  having 
come  from  the  West  Indies  as  ballast  for  vessels.  In  the 
cellar  is  generally  a  large  room  about  19x19  feet  at  one  end, 
and  the  other  end  divided  into  small  rooms  which  are  used 
for  storage.  The  walls  of  the  cellar  rise  several  feet  above 
the  ground.  In  the  large  cellar  room  there  is  a  fire-place 
several  feet  deep,  about  eight  feet  wide  and  four  feet  high. 

a  Morse  Geog.,  Mrs.  Powell's  "New  Bern." 

Note. — All  the  earlier  brick  builcliugs  are  said  to  have  been  built 
with  "brick  bronght  from  England."  This  probably  means  of  "Eng- 
lish Brick"  except  a  few  pressed  brick  for  tiles  and  ornamental  pur- 
poses. In  Harriot's  Narrative  ("1586)  we  read:  "The  planters  may 
be  well  supplied  with  brick,  for  the  making  whereof  in  divers  places 
of  the  country  there  is  clay  both  excellent,  good  and  plenty,  and  also 
by  lime  made  of  oyster  shells  and  others  burnt,  etc." 

When  Bacon  burned  Jamestown  in  1675  there  were  a  number  of 
brick  houses  in  the  town.  Drummond.  the  former  Governor  of  North 
Carolina  owning  one  which  in  an  excess  of  patriotism  he  fired  with 
his  own  hands.  An  old  grant  in  Virginia  in  16.37  for  lands  at  James- 
town calls  for  the  "Brick  Mill" ;  Lawson  says  in  1700  that  there  were 
"Large  Brick  Buildings"  in  Charleston  at  that  time ;  he  further  says 
"Good  Brick  and  Tiles"  were  made  in  North  Carolina.  Brickell  also 
informs  us  that  "Brick  and  Tile"  were  made  here  in  his  time.  The 
light  tonnage  of  the  vessels  averaging  probably  not  more  than  100 
tons  burden  coming  into  these  waters  after  a  month's  sail,  from  Eng- 
land, would  have  made  the  importing  of  brick  quite  expensive. 


jSToTEs  ON  Colonial  Xorth  Carolina  1T00-1T50.     27 

There  were  receptables  or  ovens  built  in  the  sides  of  the  fire- 
place. Across  the  chimney,  inside,  ran  a  heavy  iron  rod  on 
which  w^ere  the  cranes  for  hanging  pots.  These  cranes  were 
made  in  two  pieces  and  so  adjusted  that  pots  could  be  raised 
or  lowered  at  will.  In  the  cellar  rooms  were  small  windows. 
Resting  on  the  cellar  walls  were  the  sills  of  the  house,  gener- 
ally 10x12  inches  or  12x12  inches,  hewn  out  of  heart  pine 
running  the  full  length  and  breadth  of  the  house;  on  these 
were  the  sleepers,  six  inches  by  eight  inches  or  eight  inches 
by  ten  inches,  hewn  out  of  heart  pine,  joined  at  the  ends, 
mortised,  tenoned  and  truncheoned  with  lightwood  trunch- 
eons about  one  and  a  half  or  two  inches  in  diameter.  The 
sills  were  sometimes  tarred  with  hot  tar  and  wrapped  in 
tarred  canvas  as  a  further  protection  against  moisture.  On 
the  first  floor  is  a  large  square  room  19x19  feet.  For  sev- 
eral feet  from  the  floor  around  the  room,  coming  up  to  the 
base  of  the  windows  is  panelling.  The  fire-place  is  four  or 
five  feet  wide,  and  above  it  about  six  feet  tall  is  the  old 
wooden  mantel  of  best  workmanship.  Adjoining  the  big  room 
is  a  narrow  passage  with  stairs  ascending  to  the  second  floor 
and  garret;  across  the  passage  are  two  small  rooms. 

The  second  floor  is  a  duplicate  of  the  first  and  the  garret 
is  divided  into  small  rooms  with  small  windows  at  end  of 
house.  These  houses  frequently  had  brick  ends  as  is  so  often 
seen  in  tidewater  Virginia.  All  the  timbers  are  of  unbled 
pine  and  the  nails  used  are  hand-wrought. 


Note. — There  are  three  of  these  houses  still  standing  in  Beaufort 
County :  The  Cotanche  or  Marsh  House  at  Bath,  the  Maule  House 
at  Maule's  Point  and  the  old  house  at  the  Grimes  Plantation  on 
Tranters  Creek.  The  old  Cotanche  House  at  Bath  has  closets  in  its 
massive  chimney  in  which  valuables  could  be  placed  to  secure  from 
fire.  The  chimney  closets  have  small  windows  in  the  chimney.  It 
was  not  unconimon  to  have  an  excavation  bricked  up  on  each  side 
of  the  chimney  opening  inside  by  the  hearth  in  which  valuables 
could  be  placed.  In  some  old  chimneys  under  fire-places  have  been 
discovered  a  box  or  barrel  with  covers  neatly  fixed  in  the  chimney 
foundation,  so  that  by  raking  away  the  ashes  and  taking  up  part  of 
the  hearth  these  little  vaults  could  be  reached.  These  deposit  places 
were  safe  from  discovery  and  secure  from  fire. 


28     XoTES  ON  Colonial  jSToktii  Carolina  1700-1750. 

The  planter's  home  residence  was  called  the  Manor  or 
Manor  House,  The  House,  The  Great  House,  etc.  The 
family  servants  were  settled  near  at  hnad,  while  the  overseer's 
house  and  quarters  were  some  distance  away.  The  estates 
were  generally  named,  sometimes  after  the  family  or  family 
estates  in  England,  and  often  after  the  place  in  England 
from  whence  the  planter  came.  The  large  planters  prided 
themselves  upon  being  "gentlemen" — the  owner  of  lands  with 
laborers  to  work  for  them.  He  was  truly  lord  of  all  he  sur- 
veyed, governed  his  own  household  and  was  law-giver  to  his 
poor  neighbors.  He  arbitrated  their  disputes  and  settled 
their  differences — he  doctored  them  in  sickness  and  helped 
them  in  time  of  need.  The  title  of  head  or  master  of  an 
estate  carried  with  it  position  and  hereditary  dignity  and 
power  little  less  than  an  inherited  title  carried  with  it  in  the 
mother  country. 

Labor  was  in  the  greatest  demand.  In  January,  1733, 
Gov.  Burrington,  in  writing  to  the  Lords  of  Trade  and  Plan- 
tations, says :  "Land  is  not  wanting  for  men  in  Carolina,  but 
men  for  land."  *  *  ''  "I  compute  the  white  men, 
women  and  children  in  ISTorth  Carolina  to  be  fully  thirty 
thousand,  and  the  negroes  about  six  thousand.  The  Indians, 
men,  women  and  children,  less  than  eight  hundred.  *  *  * 
Great  is  the  loss  this  country  has  sustained  in  not  being  sup- 
ply'd  by  vessels  from  Guinea  with  negroes;  in  any  part  of 
the  province  the  people  are  able  to  pay  for  a  ships  load ;  but 
as  none  come  directly  from  Africa,  we  are  under  a  necessity 
to  buy  the  refuse,  refractory  and  distempered  negroes, 
brought  from  other  governments ;  it  is  hoped  some  merchants 
in  England  will  speedily  furnish  this  colony  with  negroes  to 
increase  the  produce  and  its  trade  to  England."  a 

The  planter's  wealth  was  generally  estimated  by  the  num- 
ber of  his  slaves.     All  planters  of  any  pretentions  owned 

rrC.  R.,  Vol.  .^.  pp.  4B0,  481.     Pee  nho  Vol.  4,  p.  172. 


iSToTES  ON  Colonial  I^oetii  Cakolina  1700-1750.     29 

slaves — negroes,  Indians,  mulatoes  and  mustees.  The  gold 
and  silver  that  came  into  the  hands  of  planters  from  sale  of 
j)roduce  was  saved  to  purchase  slaves  with,  as  the  traders  re- 
quired specie  payments.  Female  slaves  under  20  years  of 
age  were  especially  desired. 

In  1733  the  value  of  i)roducts  exported  to  Virginia  for 
which  our  people  received  cash  was  about  £50,000  a  year,  a 
Quit  rents,  dues,  taxes  and  all  other  debts,  public  and  private, 
were  paid  to  the  government  or  creditors  in  commodities 
which  were  rated  in  1715  as  follows: 

£.      s.        d. 

''Tobacco,  per  cwt 10       0 

Indian  corn  per  bushel 1        8 

Wheat  per  bushel 3        6 

Tallow  ti'yped,  per  fb 5 

Leather  tanned  and  uncured,  per  tb 8 

Beaver  and  other  skins  per  lb 2        6 

Wild  cat  skins  per  piece 1       0 

Butter  per  lb 6 

Cheese  per  lb 4 

Buck  and  doe  skins  (raw)  per  lb 9 

Buck  and  doe  skins  (drest)  per  fb 1       4 

Feathers  per  lb 1       4 

Pitch  (full  gauged)  per  barl 1       0       0 

Whale  oil  "       "      1     10       0 

Porke  "       "      2        5       0 

Beef  "       "      1     10     0" 

Rates  were  later  somewhat  changed.  Flax  and  hemp  were 
also  added,  h 

There  was  little  currency  in  the  province  even  at  a  much 
later  period.  In  writing  of  IS'orth  Carolina  just  before  the 
Revolution  a  traveler  says:   "There  is  but  little  specie  in 


&C.  R.,  Vol.  3,  p.  622. 

cC.  R..  Vol.  4,  pp.  469,  920. 


30     jS'oTES  ox  Colonial  IsTorth  Carolina  1700-1750. 

circulation ;  indeed,  there  is  no  great  occasion  for  it ;  for  a 
planter  raises  his  o-wn  meats,  beef  and  bacon,  his  own  corn 
and  bread,  his  drink,  cyder  and  brandy,  his  fruit,  apples, 
peaches,  etc.,  and  a  great  part  of  his  clothing  which  is  cot- 
ton." a  Almost  all  wealth  was  in  land,  slaves  and  stock. 
There  was  not  much  loaning  of  money;  the  legal  rate  of  in- 
terest was  6  per  cent,  and  the  penalty  for  usury  was  for- 
feiture of  twice  the  amount  of  the  principal,  h  There  was  a 
considerable  amount  of  Mexican,  Peruvian  and  Spanish  coin 
in  circulation  in  the  province,  the  value  of  which  was  fixed 
by  proclamation  of  Queen  Anne. 

a  Smyth's  Tour  In  America,  p.  99. 

?>Laws    1741,    Ch.    11. 

Note. — "An  act  for  ascertaining  the  rates  of  foreign  coins  in  Her 
Majesty's  Plantations  in  America. 

WHEREAS,  for  remedying  the  inconveniences  which  had  arisen 
from  the  different  rates  at  which  the  same  species  of  Foreign  Silver 
coins  did  pass  in  Her  Majesty's  several  Colonies  and  Plantations  in 
America,  Her  Most  Excellent  Majesty  has  thought  fit  by  her  Royal 
Proclamation  bearing  date  the  eighteenth  day  of  June  one  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  four,  and  in  the  third  year  of  her  Reign,  to  settle 
and  ascertain  the  currency  of  foi'eign  coins  in  her  said  Colonies  and 
Plantations  in  the  manner  and  words  following : 

We  having  had  imder  our  Consideration  the  different  rates  at 
which  the  same  Species  of  Foreign  Coins  do  pass  in  our  several 
Colonies  and  Plantations  in  Amei'ica,  and  the  inconveniences  thereof 
by  the  indirect  practice  of  drawing  the  money  from  one  Plantation 
to  another  to  the  great  Prejudice  of  the  Trade  of  our  Subjects ;  and 
being  sensible  that  the  same  cannot  be  otherwise  remedied  than  by 
reducing  all  foreign  coins  to  the  same  current  Rate  within  all  our 
Dominions  in  America  ;  and  the  principal  officers  of  our  Mint  having 
laid  before  us  a  table  of  the  value  of  the  several  Foreign  Coins 
which  usually  pass  in  Payments  in  our  said  Plantations  according 
to  their  Weight  and  Assays  made  of  them  in  our  INIint,  thereby 
shewing  the  just  proportion  which  each  coin  ought  to  have  to  the 
other  which  is  as  followeth ;    *     *     * 

II.  And  whereas,  notwithstanding  the  said  Proclamation  the 
same  indirect  practices  as  are  therein  mentioned  are  still  carried 
on  within  some  of  the  said  Colonies  or  Plantations  and  the  money 
thereby  drawn  from  one  Plantation  to  another,  in  Prejudice  of  the 
Trade  of  Her  Majesty's  subjects;  Wherefore  for  the  better  enforcing 
the  due  Execution  of  her  ]Majesty's  said  Proclamation  throughout 
all  the  said  Colonies  and  Plantations,  and  for  the  more  effectual 
remedying  the  said  Inconveniencies,  thereliy  intended  to  be  remedied. 
Be  it  enacted  by  the  Queen's  Most  Excellent  Majesty,  by  and  with 
the  Advice  and  consent  of  the  Lords  Spiritual  and  Temporal,  and 
Commons  in  this..present  Parliament  assembled  and  by  the  authority 
of  the  same  *  *  *  ."  statutes  at  Large,  Vol.  4,  1099-1715.  Cap. 
.-{0.  p.  .",24,  1707. 

Tlie  penalty  for  the  violation  of  this  law  was  six  months'  imprison- 
ment and  a  fine  of  Ten  pounds  for  each  offence. 


XoTES  ON  Colonial  II^Toktii  CxVeolina  1700-1Y50.     31 

Slaves  were  generally  bought  in  Virginia  or  South  Caro- 
lina at  high  prices,  and  after  the  most  select  ones  had  been 
chosen  by  the  planters  of  those  States.  With  the  opening 
of  the  Cape  Fear,  the  planters  had  an  opportunity  to  buy 
slaves  at  first  hands.  Some  of  the  planters  who  first  settled 
on  the  Cape  Fear  took  with  them  a  considerable  number  of 
slaves  from  their  plantations  in  Chowan  and  Pamlico. 
Among  these  may  be  mentioned : 

Edward  Moseley  with  62  slaves. 
Roger  Moore  with  100  slaves. 
John  Porter  with     62  slaves. 

John   Lovick         with     34  slaves,  a 

They  moved  that  many  in  1732  and  were  allowed  head- 
rights  of  fifty  acres  for  each  member  of  their  families.  Roger 
Moore  at  the  time  of  his  death  in  1751  owned  250  negroes. 

Slavery  was  the  greatest  eleemosynary  and  educational  in- 
stitution for  a  weak  and  inferior  race  that  the  world  has  ever 
known.  Some  of  the  planters  freed  their  slaves,  but  this 
does  not  seem  to  have  met  the  approval  of  the  colonists  as 
freed  slaves  were  required  to  leave  the  province  or  to  be  sold 
again  into  slavery,  h 

In  disposing  of  slaves  care  was  taken  not  to  separate  the 
men  and  their  wives  and  children ;  an  instance  of  this  kind 
is  sho\vn  in  the  will  of  Cullen  Pollock,  1749.  Occasionally 
negro  slaves  could  read  and  write  even  in  the  earliest  period, 
and  negroes  were  allowed  to  raise  "side  crops"  of  tobacco, 
to  gather  herbs,  etc.,  and  the  money  derived  from  these  was 
theirs  individually  and  to  do  as  they  pleased  with,  c 

When  it  became  necessary  to  execute  a  slave  the  owner 
was  repaid  his  value,  which  was  assessed  by  the  Justices  and 
allowed  by  the  Assembly,  d 


aC.  R.,  Vol.  3.  p.  426.  etc. 
?)Laws  1741.  Ch.  24,   Sec.  56. 
c  Brlckell.  p.  275. 
r?La\vs  1741.  Ch.  24,  See.  46. 


32     XoTES  ON  Colonial  Xoktii  Caeolina  1700-1750. 

All  slaves  were  tytbable  at  the  age  of  12  years,  a 
Every  master  was  allowed  to  permit  one  slave  on  every  plan- 
tation to  carry  a  gun  for  the  protection  of  stock  and  for  hunt- 
ing game  for  the  table,  h  All  slaves  away  from  their  mas- 
ters' plantations  were  required  to  have  "certificate  of  leave 
in  writing  for  so  doing,  from  his  or  her  master  or  overseer 
(negroes  Avearing  liveries  always  excepted)."  c  It  seemed  to 
please  the  fancy  of  the  planters  to  name  their  slaves  after  the 
great  characters  in  mythology  and  history,  or  to  give  them 
some  whimsical  name.  Every  large  plantation  had  its  Csesar, 
Cannibal,  Scipio,  Jupiter,  Moses,  Aaron,  Pompey,  Mars, 
Venus,  Dido,  Diana,  Africa,  Mustapha,  etc. 

Indentured  white  servants  were  not  as  numerous  in  this 
country  as  in  Virginia  and  Maryland.  These  unfortunates 
represented  many  classes  and  conditions.  "Some  of  the  con- 
victs sold  as  indentured  servants  were  persons  of  family  and 
education."  d  Convicts  were  sent  to  the  colonies  and 
sold  into  bondage.  Others  were  sent  into  servitude 
for  political  offences.  Many  of  the  supporters  of 
the  Duke  of  Monmouth  were  deported  to  the  American 
colonies  and  sentenced  to  ten  years'  servitude.  Some  in- 
dentured themselves  to  pay  their  passage  money,  which  was 
about  £5  in  cash,  and  were  sold  upon  arrival  here  by  the 
sailing  master.  Christian  servants  above  16  years  old  im- 
ported into  this  government  witliout  indenture,  were  required 
to  serve  five  years.  All  under  16  years  of  age  were  to  serve 
till  they  were  22  years  old.  e  All  Christians  Avere  to  be  al- 
lowed by  their  master  or  mistress  at  the  expiration  of  their 
service  three  barrels  of  Indian  corn,  two  new  suits  of  ap- 
parel valued  at  £5  at  best,  or  in  lieu  of  a  suit  of  "apparell" 
"a  good  well-fixed  gun  if  he  be  a  man  servant" ;  they  were 
also  enttiled  to  fifty  acres  of  land  which  they  seldom  took  up. 


f/Laws  1741.  Ch.  24. 
7jLaws  1741,  Cb.  24.   Sec.  41. 
rL:i\vs  1741.  Ch.  24.   Sec.  53. 
d  Bancroft.  Vol.  2.  p.  251. 
cLaws  1715,  Ch.  46,  Sec.  6. 


^OTES  ON  Colonial  Xoetii  Cakolina  1700-1750.     -33 

Many  people,  especially  women  and  children,  were  kidnap- 
j^ed  in  London  and  other  cities  and  brought  to  America  to 
be  sold  as  bond  servants.  The  Colony  passed  an 
act  a  whereby  the  person  kidnapped,  if  a  Chris- 
tian or  a  subject  of  a  friendly  power,  might  recover 
from  the  Importer  or  Seller  double  the  amount  for  which 
he  was  sold,  and  the  defendant  was  required  to  give  bond 
to  transport  the  j^erson  back  to  the  land  from  whence  he 
came  within  one  year. 

Writing  to  the  Lords  of  Trade  and  Plantations  Gov.  Bur- 
rington  says :  b  "It  is  by  breeding  Horses,  Hoggs, 
and  Cattle  that  people  without  slaves  gain  substance 
here  at  first,  not  by  their  labor."  The  abundance 
of  grass,  reeds  and  rich  vegetation  caused  the  horses,  cattle 
and  hogs  to  multiply  in  vast  numbers ;  the  stock  were  branded 
or  marked  and  turned  loose  in  the  woods,  being  penned  and 
fed  enough  to  keep  them  from  going  entirely  wild.  Lawson 
says  (1707)  he  had  seen  as  many  as  one  thousand  cattle  be- 
longing to  one  owner,  and  Brickell  says  he  had  seen  one  hun- 
dred calves  in  one  pen  belonging  to  one  person.  The  calves 
Avere  confined  to  insure  the  return  of  the  cows  each  evening, 
a  custom  that  prevails  with  cattle  raisers  in  Eastern  Caro- 
lina to  this  day. 

About  1728  there  was  a  disease  that  destroyed  half  the 
cattle  in  the  Province ;  c  again  about  1760  another  cattle 
distemper  was  brought  in  the  Province  from  South  Caro- 
lina by  which  near  7-8  of  the  stock  was  lost,  d  The  impor- 
tance of  the  cattle  industry  seems  to  have  declined  from  that 
time. 


a  Laws  1741,  Cli.  25.  Sec.  23. 

1)  C.  R.,  Vol.  3,  p.  148. 

cC.  R.,  Vol.  3,  p.  28. 

dC.  R.,  Vol.  6,  p.  1.020. 

Note. — We  are  told  that  in  South  Carolina  the  writer  Peter  Purry 
in  1731  had  known  "one  Planter  to  mark  two  hundred  calves  last 
spring" ;  Again,  another  writer  states  that  in  South  Carolina  "Black 
Cattle  are  extremely  plentiful.  ifT^riv  srentlemen  owning  from  five 
hundred  to  fifteen  hundred  head.     Carr.     Coll..  Vol.  2.  pp.  123,  482. 


o4     XoTEs  ON  Colonial  JSTokth  Carolina  1700-1750. 

Horses  were  raised  in  considerable  numbers.  They  were 
turned  out  to  range,  it  being  necessary  to  feed  them  only  in 
the  winter  time.  In  almost  every  locality  in  the  early  settled 
sections  of  North  Carolina  there  are  to-day  places  where  tra- 
dition tells  us  were  "horse  pens."  Many  localities  have  such 
names  as  the  "Horse  neck  pocoson/'  "Horse  Pen  branch," 
etc.  These  horses  are  described  as  smaller  than  the  average 
liorses  now  in  use  but  of  great  endurance.  Many  of  them 
are  said  to  have  gone  wild. 

Hogs  were  raised  in  vast  numbers,  the  woods  abounding 
in  berries,  fruits,  acorns  and  mast  of  all  kinds.  The  Coastal 
Plain  was  heavily  set  in  oaks  of  all  kinds  and  the  acorns 
furnished  abundant  food  for  hogs.  Hogs  were  kept  until 
grown,  and  it  became  a  custom  on  account  of  their  uniform 
size  to  count  the  pieces,  hams,  shoulders,  sides,  etc.,  instead 
of  weighing.  This  custom  prevailed  until  the  middle  of  the 
past  century.  Planters  now  living  tell  me  that  they  have  sold 
dried  meats  that  way  which  were  transported  in  flat  boats 
down  the  rivers  to  be  loaded  in  vessels  for  the  West  Indies. 
Beef  and  pork  barrelled  dry,  and  in  pickle,  were  of  the  rated 
commodities,  and  for  many  years  were  two  of  the  chief  ex- 
ports of  the  colony. 

Gov.  Burrington  reported  in  1736  that  there  were  fifty 
thousand  hogs  and  ten  thousand  fat  oxen  driven  into  Vir- 
ginia yearly,  a  The  want  of  salt  made  this  necessary. 
These  came  from  Pamlico  and  Albemarle,  and  -svere  in  ad- 
dition to  the  amount  of  barrelled  meat  shipped. 

Horses  were  branded  and  Cattle  and  Hogs  were  marked 
in  the  ears,  a  custom  that  still  prevails.  '" 

For  altering  or  defacing  brands  or  the  mismarking  of 
stock  there  was  a  penalty  of  ten  pounds  proclamation  money 
over  and  above  the  value  of  the  animal,  and  "forty  lashes  on 


ft  C.    R..    Vol.   4.   p.    172. 

'•=XoTE. — The  writer's  mark  now  in  use  "a  crop  slit  and  under  bit 
both  ears,"  has  been  the  family  stock  mark  for  more  than  a  cen- 

tlU'V. 


XOTES  OX  CoLOiS'IAL  XOKTII  CAilOLi:N'A  lTOO-1750.       35 

his  bare  back  well  laid  on,  and  for  the  second  offence^  he 
shall  pay  the  price  above-mentioned,  stand  in  the  Pillory 
Two  Hours  and  be  branded  in  the  left  hand  with  a  red  hot 
iron  the  letter  T."  *  *  ^  "Such  slave  or  slaves  shall, 
for  first  offence,  suffer  both  his  ears  to  be  cut  off,  and  be  pub- 
licly whipt,  at  the  Discretion  of  the  Justices  and  Freeholders 
before  whom  he  shall  be  tried ;  and  for  the  second  offence 
shall  suffer  death."  a 

The  discovery  of  the  rich  Cape  Fear  bottoms  where  the 
rice  lands  are  as  fertile  as  any  in  the  world,  attracted  at- 
tention near  the  close  of  the  Proprietary  period,  and  quite 
a  colony  of  the  leading  men  from  Albemarle  and  Bath  coun- 
ties went  there ;  among  them  the  Porters,  Ashes,  Moores,  Lil- 
lingtons,  Moseleys,  etc.  Of  these  the  Hon.  Geo.  Davis  says : 
''They  were  no  needy  adventurers,  driven  by  necessity,  no 
unlettered  boors,  ill  at  ease  in  the  haunts  of  civilization,  and 
seeking  their  proper  sphere  amidst  the  barbarism  of  the  sav- 
ages. They  were  gentlemen  of  birth  and  education,  bred  in 
the  refinements  of  polished  society,  aud  bringing  with  them 
ample  fortunes,  gentle  manners,  and  cultivated  minds — most 
of  them  united  by  ties  of  blood,  and  all  by  those  of  friend- 
ship, they  came  as  one  household,  sufiicient  to  themselves,  and 
reared  their  family  altars  in  love  and  peace." 

It  was  not  an  uncommon  thing  for  a  wealthy  planter  to 
own  twenty  or  thirty  thousand  acres  of  land,  h 

Provoked  by  a  charge  that  some  of  them  OT\Tied  more  than 
one  hundred  thousand  acres  each,  John  Porter,  Edward 
Hyrne,  Jno.  Swann,  Sam  Swann,  J.  Davis,  M.  Moore,  Thos. 
Jones,  Xathaniel  Moore  and  Jno.  Davis  signed  a  memorial, 
saying  they  together  did  not  own  more  than  seventy-five 
thousand  acres,  and  had  "not  more  than  t^velve  hundred  per- 
sons in  their  families."  c 


r/Laws  1741.  Cli.  8. 
h  V.  R..  Vol.  4.  p.  426. 
cC.  R..  Vol.  4,  p.  315. 


36     Notes  on  Colonial  Xoeth  Caeolina  1700-1750. 

Tlie  planters  lived  on  the  streams,  and  every  family  had 
its  periaiiger,  canoe,  sloop  or  brigantine. 

The  water-ways  were  the  chief  mode  of  transportation. 
To  the  planters'  doors  came  the  ships  of  the  old  world,  and 
especially  the  sloops  of  the  ISTew  England  and  West  India 
trader. 

Many  of  the  more  substantial  planters  owned  vessels  that 
traded  with  'New  England,  the  Barbadoes  and  occasionally 
made  trips  to  Europe.  The  periaugers  Avould  carry  eight  or 
ten  tons  or  fifty  or  sixty  barrels  of  pork  or  tar,  and  were  well 
adapted  to  the  shallow  creeks  and  landings  that  they  oftenest 
frequented.  The  usual  vessels  in  our  waters  were  not  of 
more  than  fifty  or  seventy-five  tons,  mainly  the  J^ew  England 
sloops.  At  an  early  period  an  effort  was  made  to  encourage 
]!^orth  Carolina  ship  owners,  and  in  an  act  of 
1715,  a  vessels  entering  the  government  were  re- 
quired to  pay  one  pound  of  powder,  four  pounds  swan  shot 
and  twelve  flints  for  every  three  tons'  measure,  and  for  want 
thereof  ten  shillings  for  every  three  tons — this  was  not  to 
apply  to  vessels  built  in  this  country  or  owned  in  whole  or 
in  part  here,  nor  to  those  vessels  loaded  wtih  salt  to  unload 
here. 

The  absence  of  deep  water  shipping  ports  was  the  greatest 
handicap  under  which  this  province  labored.  Eor  many 
years  its  importations  were  through  the  Virginia  capes.  Most 
of  its  commodities  were  brought  from  ISTew  England  where 
they  were  imported  and  re-shipped  to  us. 

Tobacco  promised  at  one  time  to  be  our  chief  money  crop, 
but  there  was  an  over  production.  The  first  Carolina  law  of 
which  we  have  any  record  was  "An  Act  prohibiting  the  sow- 
ing, setting,  planting  or  in  any  way  tending  any  tobacco" 
from  Eeby.  1st.,  1667,  to  Eeby.  1st.,  IQQS.h  A 
similar     effort     was     made     bv     Virginia     and     Maryland 


a  Laws  1715.  Cli.  .35. 

1)  S.  P.  N.,  Vol  1,  p.  34. 


Notes  on  Colonial  ]sroETii  Cakolina  1700-1750.     37 

at  the  same  time.  The  next  blow  to  our  tobacco  interests 
came  about  1679  in  "An  act  against  importing  tobacco  from 
Carolina,  and  other  ports  without  the  Capes  of  Virginia." 
it  was  enacted:  "That  such  importation  from  henceforth 
be,  and  by  virtue  of  this,  remain  prohibited  and  forbidden ; 
and  that  if  any  tobacco  hereafter,  in  anywise  whatsoever, 
shall  be  imported  from  Carolina  or  other  ports  without  the 
Capes,  into  this  colony  and  dominion  in  order  to  be  laid  here 
on  shore,  sold  or  shipped,  the  same  shall  be  thereby  forfeited 
and  lost."  a 

Another  act  similar  to  the  above  was  passed  by  Virginia 
against  ISTorth  Carolina  in  1726.  Against  this  the  inhabitants 
of  Albemarle  protested,  setting  forth  "That  the  Inlets  to  that 
part  of  ]^orth  Carolina  are  not  capable  of  receiving  vessels 
of  Burthen  fitt  for  the  transportating  of  Tobacco  from  thence 
to  Great  Brittain."  This  effectually  prohibited  shipping,  and 
thereby  destroyed  our  market  for  tobacco.  The  planters 
could  raise  tobacco  sufficient  to  pay  quit  rents,  etc,,  which  the 
government  accepted  at  the  rated  price,  but  they  could  not 
sell  it  jirofitably  and  were  forced  to  leave  off  planting  in 
quantity  for  profit.  "Endeavoring  to  cloathe  themselves  with 
tlieir  own  manufactures"  would  compete  wdth  British  manu- 
facturers, so  the  British  Board  of  Trade  repealed  these  acts 
July  29,  1731.  h 

According  to  Lawson  Roanoke  Inlet  was  ten  feet  over  the 
bar,  but  the  sands  were  shifting  and  uncertain  after  coming 
within.  Hatteras  had  four  or  five  fathom  on  bar,  but  after 
getting  into  the  sound  not  more  than  six  feet  of  water  was 
to  be  found.  At  Ocracoke,  in  Lawson's  time,  there  was 
thirteen  feet  at  low  water  and  eighteen  feet  at  high  water, 
and  after  crossing  the  bar  safe  anchorage  was  found  in  seven 
or  eight  fathom  water.  Wimble  (1738)  says  there  was  17 
feet  on  bar ;  in  Teach's  hole  4  fathoms  of  water,  and  in  the 
sound  an  eieht  to  nine  feet  channel  was  to  be  found. 


a  (.  R.,  Vol.  1,  p.  628. 
6  C.  R.,  Vol.  3,  p.  211, 


38     XoTES  ON  Colonial  jSToeth  Caeolina  1700-1750. 

At  Beaufort,  on  Topsail  Inlet,  was  two  fathoms  of  water, 
according  to  Lawson,  and  five  or  six  fathoms  in  the  harbor. 
Wimble  says  there  was  seventeen  feet  on  the  bar.  Prof. 
Bache,  Superintendent  of  Coast  Survey  in  1851,  gives  seven- 
teen feet  at  low  water.  In  re]3ort  to  Congress  Prof.  Bache 
states  that  "a  ship  drawing  twenty  feet  of  water  can  leave  at 
any  state  of  tide,  with  almost  any  wind  and  discharge  her 
pilot  at  sea  in  from  thirty  to  forty-five  minutes  after  weighing 
anchor." 

Roanoke  Inlet  was  early  abandoned  because  it  was  shifting, 
shallow  and  dangerous,  and  Ocracoke  became  the  customary 
entrance  as  about  nine  feet  of  water  could  be  secured  from 
Ocracoke  to  Bath,  ISTewberne  and  Edenton.  From  Bath  to^vn 
to  Ocracoke  was  reckoned  seventy  miles,  a 

Bath  promised  at  one  time  to  be  the  commercial  metropolis 
of  Pamlico  and  Albemarle  Sounds,  and  was  an  important  port 
of  entry.  When  it  was  determined  to  have  a  permanent 
capital  the  General  Assembly  voted  to  make  Bath  the  seat 
of  government,  but  "by  management"  Gov.  Johnston  secured 
the  selection  of  ISTewberne.  h 

Burrington,  who  had  considerable  wisdom,  wished  to  make 
Ocracoke  the  port  of  entry,  abolishing  collection  districts  of 
Roanoke  (Edenton),  Currituck  and  Bath  town.  At  Ocra- 
coke we  could  have  a  direct  trade  with  Europe,  receiving  the 
larger  sea-going  vessels  there  and  distributing  the  produce 
to  the  various  parts  of  our  colony  in  smaller  vessels  and  have 
direct  importation  of  negroes.  He  did  not,  however,  have 
sufficient  influence  at  Court  for  that  purpose,  and  for  years 
our  neighbors  to  the  north  and  south  of  us  received  the  great 


a  C.  R.,  Vol.  3,  p.  170. 
bC.  R.,  Vol.  4,  p.  833. 


XoTES  ON  Colonial  jS^okth  Caeolina  1700-1750.     o9 

ships  and  re-shipped  to  our  waters  in  smaller  vessels,  receiv- 
ing the  profits  and  benefits  that  should  have  been  ours.  '"'^ 

Gov.  Burrington  in  1731  writes: 

"The  pilots  I  have  appointed  assure  me  that  at  Ocracoke 
they  bring  in  vessels  that  draw  sixteen  or  eighteen  feet  water, 
at  Port  Beaufort  that  draw  twenty,  and  at  Cape  Fear  near 
two  and  twenty — this  account  the  Pilots  offered  to  swear 
too.  Currituck  Inlet  is  shut  up,  and  Poanoke  is  so  dangerous 
that  few  people  care  to  use  it,  but  go  round  to  Ocracoke."  a 

Port  Beaufort  had  but  a  very  small  quantity  of  land  be- 
longing to  its  district  and  was  very  inconvenient  to  traders  on 
IvTeuse  Piver,  and  the  traders  in  that  section  were  "forced  to 
ride  forty  miles  to  enter  and  clear  at  Beaufort  tliro'  a  low, 
watery  and  uninhabited  country,  Avhich  after  great  rains  is 
not  passable  in  many  days,"  h 

At  Cape  Fear  Lawson  found  "seven  fathom  on  barr  with 
fine  harbor"  and  this  was,  and  is,  probably  the  best  natural 
port  south  of  ISTew  York.  Tryon  said  in  1764:  "The  en- 
trance over  this  bar  is  esteemed  equal  to  that  of  Charleston."  c 

Vol.  3,  p.  210. 
Vol.  4.  p.  169. 
Vol.  6,  p.  1,059. 

—Burrington  says,  C.  R.,  Vol.  3,  p.  336,  "At  the  south  end 
of  an  island  called  Ocracock  there  is  sufficient  depth  of  water  for 
any  merchantman  to  come  in  and  a  secure  harbor,  this  Island  is 
separated  from  the  main  land  by  a  Sound  about  fourteen  leagues 
over  that  cannot  be  passed  by  a  Vessell  that  dra\A's  tenn  foot  water, 
it  has  communications  with  many  large  rivers  that  water  so  great 
a  part  of  this  country  as  contain  four  parts  in  five  of  all  the  Inhabi- 
tants within  the  Province.  On  this  Island  there  is  n  hill  whereon 
if  a  small  fort  was  Erected  Cannon  would  from  thence  Command  the 
Rarr.  Channell  and  Harbour,  there  is  no  one  thing  that  would  cause 
the  trade  of  this  Province  to  flourish  like  setting  a  Custom  House  on 
this  Place,  .this  would  procure  a  trade  fi'om  England,  in  a  little  time 
put  an  end  to  the  Pedllng  carried  on  by  the  Virginians  and  People  of 
New  England." 

Note. — A  letter  from  Capt.  Winslow  of  the  U.  S.  Corps  of  Engi- 
neers gives  the  distance  from  Ocracoke  Inlet  to  Washington,  N.  C, 
75  miles;  (about  12  miles  above  Rath).  Ocracoke  Inlet  to  New 
Berne.  N.  C,  70  miles ;  Ocracoke  Inlet  to  Edenton,  N.  C,  130  miles." 
Regarding  Roanoke  Inlet  he  gives  the  following  data : 
"It  was  open  in  15S5:  depth  not  known.  It  was  navigable  for  (0) 
nine  feet  in  1708:  for  eight  (8)  feet  in  1738  and  1775;  it  was  open 
in  1705:  depth  not  known,  and  was  closed  in  1875.  The  time  of  the 
closure  not  being  definitely  known." 


aC. 

R., 

&C. 

R., 

cC. 

R., 

*  Note.- 

40     XoTEs  ON  Colonial  j^oktii  Carolina  1700-1750. 

''The  distance  from  Charleston  bar  to  that  of  Cape  Fear  is 
sixty  leagues,  and  has  been  frequently  run  in  twenty  hours." 

In  a  letter  to  the  Lords  of  the  Board  of  Trade,  Dec.  12, 
173-1,  Gab  Johnson  says  the  Cape  Fear  was  "the  best  navi- 
gation of  any  betwixt  Chesapeak  Bay  and  Cape  Florida,  and 
that  the  past  year  forty-two  ships  went  loaded  from  this 
river."  He.  said  that  the  first  settlement  there  was  about 
eight  years  before. 

When  direct  trade  commenced  at  Wilmington  the  Cape 
Fear  country  soon  became  one  of  the  most  important  com- 
mercial sections  in  America. 

The  leading  men  of  the  jirovince  were  well  educated, 
thougli  little  provision  was  made  for  the  laboring  classes. 
Gentlemen's  sons  were  sent  to  Williamsburg,  Charleston, 
Xew  England  and  Old  England ;  some  had  tutors  at  home. 
The  daughters  were  taught  by  their  o^\ti  mothers  or  placed 
with  ladies  who  undertook  to  educate  them. 

The  ministers  and  lay  readers  were  generally  also  teachers^ 
iuid  educated  indentured  servants  were  sometimes  used  for 
that  purpose.  Charles  Griffin  about  1705  was  probably  the 
first  professional  teacher  in  the  Province,  and  others  fol- 
lowed. Brickell  a  says:  "The  want  of  the  Protest 
ant  clergy  is  generally  supplied  by  some  School-Masters,  wlio 
read  the  Liturgy.  These  are  most  numerous  and  are  dis- 
persed through  the  whole  Province."  A  free  school  for  the 
education  of  Indian  and  negro  children  was  established  by  the 
Society  for  the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel  at  Bath  about 
1720.  h 

The  law  required  c  "That  all  orphans  shall  be 
Educated  and  provided  for  according  to  their  Rank 
and  degree"  out  of  the  "Income  or  Interest  of  their 
Estate  and  Stock,  if  the  same  will  be  sufficient,  otherwise  such 


0  Page  35. 

1)  See"  Riiinsford's  letter. 

c  Ch.  49,  Laws  1715.  Sec.  4. 


XoTEs  o^  Colonial  Xorth  Carolina  1700-1750.     41 

orpliau  shall  be  bound  apprentice  to  some  Handycraft  Trade 
(the  Master  or  Mistress  of  such  Orphan  not  being  of  the  Pro- 
fession of  the  People  called  Quakers)  till  they  shall  come 
of  age." 

Religion  was  established  by  law,  but  the  people  were  al- 
lowed to  worship  God  in  their  ovm  way  and  no  one  was  re- 
quired to  conform  to  the  faith  and  forms  of  The  Church  unless 
they  wished  to.  The  Established  Church  was  supposed  to  be 
supported  by  taxes,  but  the  inhabitants  do  not  seem  to  have 
been  liberal  or  prompt  in  their  settlements : 

'''With  absolute  freedom  of  sonscience,  benevolent  reason 
was  the  simple  rule  of  their  conduct."  a 

All  Protestant  Dissenters  were  allowed  to  have  their  meet- 
ings for  the  exercise  of  their  religion  without  molestation, 
but  no  Quaker  was  qualified  or  permitted  to  give  evidence  in 
any  criminal  causes  or  to  serve  on  any  jury,  or  bear  any 
office  or  place  of  profit  or  trust  in  the  government,  h 

The  early  settlers  were  governed  by  the  laws  of  England 
and  such  additional  laws  as  were  not  repugnant  thereto. 

In  the  revision  of  1715  the  first  of  the  "Six  Confirmed 
Laws"  was  "An  Act  concerning  Marriages."  After  reciting 
the  absence  of  ministers  in  the  Province  to  join  "in  wedlock 
according  to  the  Rites  and  Customs  of  our  natural  Country 
the  Kingdom  of  England :  that  none  may  be  hindered  from 
so  necessary  a  work  for  the  preservation  of  Manlcind  and 
settlement  of  this  country."  Sec.  2  reads.  "It  is  enacted  and 
be  it  enacted  by  the  Palatin  and  Lords  Proprietors,  of  Caro- 
lina, by  and  with  the  consent  and  Advice  of  the  present 
Grand  Assembly  and  the  authority  thereof,  that  any  two 
persons  desirous  to  be  joined  together  in  the  Holy  Estate  of 
Matrimony,  taking  three  or  four  neighbours  along  with  them 
and  repairing  to  the  Governor  or  any  one  of  the  Council, 
before  him  declaring  that  they  do  join  together  in  the  Holy 


a  Bancroft.   Vol.   2.   p.   154. 

6  Laws  171.5.  Ch.  t>.  Sees.  2,  H.     Ro-onncted  in  1749. 


42     jSTotes  on  Colonial  ISTorth  Carolina  1700-1750. 

Estate  of  Wedlock  and  do  accept  one  the  other  for  Man  and 
Wife,  and  the  said  Governor  or  Councellor  before  whom 
such  Act  is  performed,  giving  certificate  thereof,  and  the 
said  certificate  being  registered  in  the  Secretary's  oflice,  or  by 
the  Register  of  the  Precinct  or  in  such  office  as  shall  here- 
after be  appointed  for  that  use.  It  shall  be  deemed  a  Lawful 
Marriage,  &  the  persons  violating  that  marriage  shall  be 
punished  as  they  had  been  married  according  to  the  Rites 
and  Customs  of  England." 

Later  magistrates  were  allowed  to  perform  the  marriage 
ceremony,  a  Registration  of  marriages,  births  and 
deaths  were  required,  h  and  "every.  Planter,  Owner, 
Attorney  or  Overseer  of  every  settled  plantation  in 
this  Government,  or  that  hereafter  shall  be  settled 
shall  set  apart  a  Burial  place,  and  fence  the  same  for  the 
interring  of  all  such  Christian  persons  whether  bond  or  free 
that  shall  die  on  their  plantations."  * 

In  this  day  of  temperance  agitation  the  following  law  may 
be  worth  mentioning,  and  the  idea  of  requiring  a  bond  of 
liquor  dealers  for  the  faithful  observance  of  the  law  may  be 
worth  reviving:  c  "An  act  concerning  Ordinary 
keepers  and  Tippling  houses."  The  keepers  of  Taverns  or 
Ordinaries  were  required  to  have  license  to  sell  liquor  and 
to  give  bond  for  the  due  observance  of  the  law;  it  further 

a  Laws  1741,  Cli.  1.  Sec.  9. 

h  Laws  171.5,  Ch.  47. 

r-Laws  171.5,  Ch.  5.3. 

*  Note. — It  seems  to  have  been  a  custom  at  buryings  to  feed  the 
people  attending.  The  following  bill  pasted  in  "Minute  Docket 
1695-1712"  may  not  be  uninteresting. 

Bill  of  Arthur  Carlton  for  sickness  and  burial  expenses  of  Thomas 
Catlett:      (1703.) 

£.     s.      d. 

My  trouble  in  ye  sickness 10 

coffin    10 

sheat    8 

digging  grave,  etc 5       6 

funeral   dinner    1     10 

By  looking  after  hogs,  etc 1      5 


XoTES  ON  Colonial  jSTorth  Caeolina  1T0U-1T50.     43 

provided  that  "nothing  in  this  act  shall  be  adjudged  to  hinder 
any  Man  from  selling  Cyder  or  other  liquors,  the  produce  of 
his  own  plantation,  at  any  time  hereafter  by  full  and  Lawful 
measures  (the  same  not  being  drunk  in  the  cellar  house  or 
plantation.)"  The  rate  of  charges  for  "Drink,  Dyet,  Lodg- 
ing, Fodder,  Provender,  Corn  or  Pasturage"  was  fixed  by 
the  Justices  of  the  County  Court,  a  There  were 
very  few  poor  in  the  province  as  there  was  great 
demand  for  labor,  and  every  one  who  would  exert  himself 
had  an  abundance  of  "hog" and  hominy,"  The  fines  collected 
for  Sabbath  breaking  and  swearing,  profaneness,  etc.,  were 
paid  by  the  Justices  to  the  Church  Warden  for  the  use  of 
the  poor  of  the  parish,  b  If  any  person  was 
wounded,  maimed  or  hurt  in  his  country's  service 
"and  not  of  ability  to  maintain  himself  or  pay  for 
his  cure,  he  or  they  shall  be  cured  at  the  Publick  charge, 
and  have  one  good  negro  man-slave  allowed  and  purchased 
for  him  for  his  maintenance,  and  in  the  same  case  if  any  one 
shall  be  killed,  the  Publick  shall  make  the  same  provision  for 
his  wife  and  family." 

To  vote  for  a  member  of  the  Assembly  one  was  required 
to  be  21  years  of  age  and  to  have  been  an  inhabitant  of  the 
government  six  months,  and  •  a  free-holder  with  fifty 
acres,  c  This  property  qualification  was  not  hard 
to  attain,  as  every  resident  was  entitled  to  fifty  acres 
for  himself  and  the  same  for  each  member  of  his  family,  if 
he  chose  to  enter  it.  To  be  a  member  of  the  Assembly  it  was 
necessary  to  have  been  a  resident  of  the  Province  for  one  full 
year  and  to  be  21  years  of  age  and  own  100  acres  of  land. 

There  were  a  number  of  good  roads  in  the  province  before 
1750 — that  from  Edenton  to  Willi amsbura;,   a   distance  of 


a  Laws  1741,  Ch.  20.  Sec.  4. 
6  Laws  1715.  Ch.  25.  Sec.  8. 
r-Laws  M4H.  Ch.  1.  Sec.  5. 


44     Notes  on  Colonial  Xokth  Carolina  1700-1750. 

100  miles,  being  very  good  and  a  great  highway  of  traveh 
The  road  from  "Edenton  to  Virginia,  being  made  broad  and 
convenient  for  all  sorts  of  carriages,  such  as  Coaches,  Chaises, 
Waggons  and  Carts,  and  especially  for  Horsemen."  a 
There  was  a  road  from  Edenton  to  Bath,  from 
Bath  to  K'ew  Berne,  and  from  ISTew  Berne  to  Brunswick — 
distance,  two  hundred  miles. 

The  road  system  was  not  much  inferior  to  that  in  many 
counties  in  ISTorth  Carolina  to-day.  Every  male  person, 
white  or  black,  from  sixteen  years  of  age  to  sixty,  was  re- 
quired to  work  the  roads,  h 

An  effort  to  secure  the  carrying  of  letters  was  made  early 
in  our  history.  All  letters  superscribed  for  his  Majesty's 
service  directed  to  or  subsigned  by  the  Governor  or  other 
"Publick  Officer"  or  by  some  Field  Officer  in  the  Militia  at 
such  time  when  the  government  is  actually  engaged  in  war 
against  the  "Indyaii  Enemie"  shall  be  "Immediately  con- 
veyed from  Plantation  to  the  place  and  persons  to  whom 
they  are  directed  under  the  Penalty  of  Five  pounds  for 
each  default — one  halfe  to  the  Government  and  the  other  half 
to  him  or  them  which  shall  sue  for  the  same."  c 
It  was  further  enacted  that  "where  any  person  in 
the  family  the  said  letter  comes  to  can  write  such  person  is 
hereby  required  to  endorse  the  day  and  houre  of  the  Receipt 
of  it  that  the  neglect  or  Contempt  of  any  person  therein  may 
be  the  better  discovered  and  punishment  inflicted  accord- 
ingly." The  bill,  costs  and  charges  of  carriages  was  ad- 
judged by  the  Court  of  each  Precinct  and  paid  by  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly,  d  Burrington  said  in  1731  "this  law  never  an- 
swered the  end,  and  is  now  entirelv  useless."  e 


a  Brifkell,  page  262. 

7>Laws  174.^,  Cli.  3;  C.  Vx..  Vol.  3,  p.  435. 

eLaws  1715,  Ch.  1.^.  Sec.  56. 

(7  Laws   171.5,   Ch.  56. 

e  Burrington,  1731;  C.  R.,  Vol.  3,  p.  188. 


jSTotes  o^'  Colonial  Xokth  Cakolina  1700-1750.     45 

A  general  post-office  was  established  iu  New  York  in  1710 
for  the  Continent,  with  several  branches,  including  Charles- 
ton in  Carolina.     Act  Parliament  1710,  Queen  Anne.  * 

In  1755  Gov.  Dobbs  in  a  message  to  the  General  Assembly 
called  attention  to  the  necessity  of  an  "Established  Post  thro' 
this  Province"  and  the  necessity  of  correspondence  with  the 
neighboring  Colonies,  whereon  James  Davis,  Printer,  was 
employed  for  the  sum  of  one  hundred  pounds,  six  shillings 
and  eight  pence  Proclamation  money  for  one  year,  "to  convey 
all  Publick  Letters,  Expresses  and  Dispatches  relating  to  this 
Province  to  any  part  thereof,  and  every  fifteen  days  send  a 
messenger  to  Suffolk,  in  Virginia,  and  to  Wilmington,"  a 

In  a  message  to  the  General  Assembly  in  1764  Gov.  Dobbs 
states  that  a  "Packet  Boat"  has  been  established  from  Eng- 
land to  Charleston.  He  urges  the  establishment  of  a  post 
"once  a  Fortnight  to  carry  letters  from  Suffolk,  in  Virginia, 
thro'  this  Province  at  least  to  our  Sounthern  Boundary." 

aC.  R.,  Vol.  5,  p.  516. 

*  Note. — "An  Act  for  establishing  a  General  Post  Office  for  all 
Her  Majesty's  Dominions  and  for  settling  a  weekly  Sum  out  of  the 
Revenues  thereof,  for  the  Service  of  the  War.  and  other  Her  Maj- 
esty's occasions."  Statutes  at  Large,  Vol.  4,  1699-1713.  (A.  D., 
1710),  page  434. 

*     *     * 

"All  letters  and  packets  from  London  to  New  York  in  North 
America,  and  thence  to  London:  Single,  one  shilling,  Double  (letters) 
two  shillings,  treble    (letters)    three  shillings.  Ounce  four   Shillings. 

All  letters  and  Packets  from  any  Part  of  the  West  Indies,  to  New 
York  aforesaid:  Single  four  pence;  Double  eight  pence.  Treble  one 
shilling.   Ounce  one  shilling  and  four  pence. 

All  letters  and  Packets  from  New  York  to  any  place  within  Sixty 
English  Miles  thereof,  and  thence  back  to  New  York:  Single,  four 
Pence,  Double  eight  pence,  treble  one  shilling.  Ounce,  one  shilling 
and  four  Pence. 

All  letters  and  Packets  from  New  York  aforesaid,  to  Charlestown, 
the  Chief  town  in  North  and  South  Carolina,  and  from  Charlestown 
aforesaid  to  New  York:  Single,  one  shilling  six  Pence;  Double,  three 
Shillings ;  Treble  four  shillings  six  Pence ;  Ounce  six  shillings. 

All  letters  and  Packets  from  Charlestown  aforesaid  to  any  Place 
not  exceeding  one  hundred  English  Miles,  and  thence  back  again : 
Single,  six  pence;  Double,  one  shilling;  Treble,  one  Shilling,  six 
pence.     Ounce  two  shillings." 

Mail  carriers  were  allowed  immediate  and  free  ferriage  over  the 
rivers  and  for  delaying  more  than  half  an  hour  or  charging,  the  fer- 
ryman was  to  forfeit  and  pay  for  every  offence  the  sum  of  £5. 


46     Notes  on  Colonial  Xorth  Caeolina  1700-1750. 

The  General  Assembly  appropriated  £133  6s.  8d.  to  be  paid 
to  the  Postmaster  if  he  establish  this  post,  a 

The  distribution  of  mails  was  made  from  Williamsburg 
and  Charleston.  In  a  letter  from  Governor  Tryon,  Dec.  8, 
1764,  to  Lord  Hyde,  Postmaster-General,  he  states  that  the 
Assembly  voted  £133  1-2  to  establish  a  post  from  Williams- 
burg to  Charleston  "charging  the  customary  postage  on  let- 
ters," by  the  following  route: 

From  William.sburg  to  Edenton 100  miles 

From  Edenton  to  Brunswick 200  miles 

From  Brunswick  to  Charleston 180  miles 


480  miles 


(This  included  the  toAvns  of  Bath,  I^ewbern  and  Wilming- 
ton.) 

The  post  had  just  been  established  from  I^ew  York  to 
Williamsburg.  He  also  petitioned  that  his  Majesty's  packet 
be  ordered  to  touch  at  Cape  Fear  River  at  Fort  Johnston. 
He  stated  that  dispatches  sometimes  laid  six  wrecks  at  Charles- 
ton and  occasionally  months  in  Virginia  before  they  were 
received,  h  Later  Try  on  recommended  the  following  route 
to  avoid  the  "broad  ferries  of  ITeuse  Biver,  Pamlico  and 
Albemarle  Sounds"  from  Suffolk,  c 

Route  from  Suffolk,  in  Virginia,  to  the  Boundary  House 
of  IvTorth  and  South  Carolina  on  the  sea  coast. 

Miles. 
From  Suffolk  to  Cotton's  Ferry  on  Chowan  River.  ...      40 

Appletree  Ferry  on  the  Roanoke 30 

*  Salters  on  Tar  or  Pamlico  River 35 

Kemps'  Ferry  on  Neuse 28 

ISTewbern 10 

Trentbridge 13 

flC.  R.,  Vol.  6,  pp.  1.291,  1,300. 
6C.  R.,  Vol.  6,  p.  1,058. 
cC.  R.,  Vol.  7,  p.  149. 

*NoTE. — Salters  was  afterwards  Watkins'  Ferry  and  is  now  Boyd's 
Ferry  on  Crimesl.-nul  TMnntation. 


Notes  on  Colo:n;ial  Xoktii  Cakolijn^a  1700-1750.  17 

Mrs.  Warburtons 13 

Sneads  on  K^ew  River  ferry 2G 

Sage's   13 

Collins'   11 

Wilmington 15 

Brunswick    15 

The  Ferry    2 

To  Bells'    20 

The  Boundary  House 23 


Total  miles 297 

Gov.  Tryon  used  special  messengers  for  carrying  his  dis- 
patches. 

It  seems  that  the  first  post  route  actually  established  thro' 
ISTorth  Carolina  was  in  January,  1769,  though  it  was  carried 
but  once  a  month,  a 

In  1770  the  General  Assembly  passed  "an  Act  to  encourage 
and  support  the  establishment  of  a  Post-office  within  this 
Province."  Of  this  act  Martin  says :  "Davis  says  that  this 
act  was  repealed  by  proclamation.  I  have  no  certificate  of 
that ;  However,  it  was  only  to  be  in  force  for  two  years,  and 
from  thence  to  the  end  of  the  next  session  of  Assembly."  * 

One  of  the  first  acts  of  the  Continental  Congress  was  to 
establish  a  post-office  with  post  routes  from  Falmouth,  Me., 
to  Savannah,  Ga. 

The  large  plantations  were  miniature  republics,  raising 
their  ovsm  beef,  pork,  horses,  corn,  grain,  tobacco,  wool,  cot- 
ton, tallow,  myrtle-wax,  **  beeswax,  etc.,  and  catching  fish  in 
the  nearby  streams. 


oC.  R.,  Vol.  8,  pp.  3.  4. 

*  Note. — I  cannot  find  the  manuscript  law  among  the  records  in  the 
Secretary  of  State's  office.     G. 

**NoTE. — The  myrtle-wax  was  mixed  with  tallow  and  used  for 
making  candles  and  is  said  to  have  emitted  a  delightful  and  fragrant 
perfume  while  burning. 


48     XoTES  ON  Colonial  N^orth  Carolina  1700-1750. 

Each  planter  had  his  own  saw  pit,  carpenter  and  cooper 
and  blacksmith  shop,  tannery,  etc.  He  raised  wool  and  cot- 
ton enough  to  clothe  his  people,  carded,  spun  and  wove  his 
own  cloth  and  made  his  own  shoes. 

In  1735  Brickell  says  ''The  Cloathings  used  by  the  Men 
are  English  Cloaths,  Druggets,  Durois,  Green  Linnen,  etc. 
The  women  have  their  silks,  Calicoes,  Stamp-Linnen,  Cali- 
manchoes  and  all  kind  of  Stuffs,  some  whereof  are  manu- 
factured in  the  Province."  a 

In  a  few  years  after  this  "negro  cloth"  was  made  in  con- 
siderable quantities  and  old  inventories  show  us  that  almost 
every  family  had  their  spinning  wheel,  linen  wheel,  flax 
brake,  hackles,  looms,  etc.  Little  cotton  was  exported.  Only 
seven  bags  of  two  hundred  and  twenty-five  pounds  each  being- 
exported  from  Charleston  in  1747,  and  none  from  any  other 
province,  h 

In  1784  fifteen  thousand  nine  hundred  and  seventy-five 
pounds  (seventy-one  bags  two  hundred  and  iwenty-five 
pounds  each),  were  shipped  to  England  and  seized  on  the 
ground  that  the  United  States  could  not  produce  so  mnch. 


(I  Pa""e   38. 

&  Carr.  Coll..  Vol.  2,  p.  2?.4. 

Note. — Wheu  Whitney  inveuted  the  cotton  gin  iu  1794  cotton  gi'ow- 
ing  was  greatly  enrouragecl.  He  was  paid  .$90,000  by  the  cotton-grow- 
ing States  (N.  C.  paying  thirty  thonsand  dollars,  Sonth  Carolina  tifty 
thonsand  dollars,  and  Georgia  ten  thonsand  dollars)  that  their  plant- 
ers eonld  have  the  privilege  of  using  his  invention.  The  "Saw-Gin" 
was  a  circnlar  saw  revolving  between  iron  ribs,  tearing  the  lint  from 
the  seeds.  One  of  these  of  ten  saws  can  be  now  seen  in  the  State 
Mnseuni.  A  tax  was  laid  by  the  State  of  2s.  6d.  per  annum  for  each 
saw  used. 

In  1810  North  Carolina,  Sonth  Carolina  and  Georgia  and  Virginia 
manufactured  more  than  all  of  New  England. 

North  Carolina  manufactured  7..''>70.154yai*ds  of  cloth. 

Virginia  manufactured  .S.007.2.55  yards  of  cloth. 

South  Carolina  manufactured  .S.08B.1SS  yards  of  cloth. 

Georgia  manufactured  .3,088.534  yards  of  cloth. 

In  1810.  at  a  military  review  in  North  Carolina  where  1,500  persons 
were  present,  all  but  forty  wore  homespmi. 
.T.  I>.  Watkins.  Dept.  Ag.  Tear  Book  1903. 


]^OTEs'OaSr  Colonial  Xoktii:  Cakolixa  1700-1750.      41) 

Considerable  linen  cloth  was  made  and  the  French  colon- 
ists  had    introduced    silk   culture    as   well    as    wine-making. 

From  1731  to  1755  there  were  40756  lbs.  of  raw  and 
"Wrought  Silk"  exported  from  IN^orth  and  South  Carolina 
into  Great  Britain,  and  38621  lbs.  of  mixed  "Silken  Stuffs" 
imported  into  ISTorth  Carolina  and  South  Carolina  from  Great 
Britain,  a  '" 

The  gentry  for  themselves  and  wives  generally  imported 
their  clothing  and  dressed  in  a  similar  style  to  people  of  their 
station  in  England.  England  discouraged  manufacturing  in 
the  colonies  in  every  way  possible,  and  up  to  the  Revolution 
the  gentry  and  better  classes  imported  their  clothing,  but 
Avhen  we  separated  from  England  we  began  to  make  every- 
thing we  needed. 

Xails  were  made  in  blacksmith  sliops  on  plantations ;  and 
all  ironware,  pewter,  etc.,  were  imported.  By  an  act  of 
Parliament,  h 


a  Carr.  Coll..  Vol.  2.  p.  272. 
b  Ilolnies'  Annals,  Vol.  2,  p.  42. 

*  Note. — In  connection  with  silk  it  may  be  interesting  to  quote  a  few 
lines  from  Coxe  in  bis  Caralana.  p.  92.  "Besides  we  have  a  grass,  as 
they  call  Silk  grass,  which  makes  very  pretty  stuffs,  such  as  come 
from  the  East  Indies,  which  they  call  Herba  Stuffs,  whereof  a  gar- 
ment was  made  for  Queen  Elizabeth,  whose  ingredient  came  from  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh's  colony,  by  him  called  Virginia,  now  North  Carolina, 
a  part  of  this  Province,  which,  to  encourage  colonies  and  plantations, 
she  was  pleased  to  wear  for  divers  weeks." 

Holmes'  Annals,  Vol.  1,  p.  486. 

Master  Ralph  Lane  writing  to  Mr.  Richard  Hakluytfrom  the  ''  new 
fort  in  Virginia"  Sept.  3,  1585,  mentions  "several  kinds  of  flax  and 
one  kind  like  silk,  the  same  gathered  as  a  grass  as  common  there  as 
grass  here." 

Hawks  1.  p.  106. 

Thomas  Harriot  in  his  narrative  writes  of  "silk  of  grass  or  grass- 
silk.  There  is  a  kind  of  grass  in  the  country  upon  the  blades  whereof 
there  groweth  very  good  silk  in  form  of  a  thin  glittering  skin  to  be 
stript  off." 

Hawks  1,  p.  154. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Curtis,  the  Botanist,  says  the  plants  mentioned  by 
Lane  and  Harriot  are  evidently  the  same  thing.  "We  have  a  plant 
(chrysopsis  graminifolia)  in  the  pine  woods,  almost  "as  common  as 
grass"  and  now  known  as  silk  weed,  which  answers  well  to  the  ac- 
counts of  these  writers,  and  which  I  have  no  doubt  is  the  one  intended 
by  them." 


50       ^'OTES  ON  CoLO]N^IAL  E'OETH  CaKOLINA  1700-1750. 

the  ''erection  of  any  mill  or  other  machine  for  slitting 
or  rolling  iron  or  any  plating  forge  to  work  with  a  tilt  ham- 
mer or  any  furnace  for  making  steel"  in  any  of  the  colonies 
was  forbidden.  * 

The  poorer  planters  at  first  used  stone  hand-mortars  for 
pounding  their  grain  tho'  the  better  classes  had  hand-mills. 
These  mills  were  of  stones  with  about  twenty  inches  or  two 
feet  face,  and  at  first  brought  from  England,  though  it  was 
soon  found  that  the  calcareous  rock  on  ]S[euse  River  h 
made  admirable  ones.  This  rock  when  first  quarried 
was  soft  and  easily  shaped,  but  when  exposed  became  hard 
and  durable.  These  hand  mills  were  worth  five  or  six 
pounds,  c 

In  1710  DeGraffenreid  said  there  was  only  one  water 
mill  in  the  province.  As  late  as  1730  there  were  only  two 
or  three  water  mills  in  the  province  and  no  wind  mills,  d 
The  Assembly  of  1715  a  to  encourage  mills  passed 
an  act  permitting  the  condemnation  by  the  Pre- 
cinct Court  of  two  acres  for  a  water  mill,  and  one-half  acre 
for  wind  mill  by  any  one  engaging  to  erect  a  mill  thereon 
within  two  years.  If  the  owner  of  the  land  would  obligate  to 
build  such  mill  himself,  then  the  motion  of  the  applicant  for 
mill  was  denied. 


.  a  Laws  1715.  Cb.  ,37. 
ftBrickell,  2G3. 
c  See  inventories. 
(I  Briclvell. 

*NoTE. — In  1731  Gov.  Biirrington  states  that  there  was  an  abun- 
dance of  iron  ore  in  North  Carolina. 

Note. — In  1775  at  Hillsboro,  the  Provincial  Congress  made  an 
effort  to  eneonrajie  manufactures.  "Premiums  were  voted  for  the 
manufacture  of  saltpetre,  gunpowder,  cotton  and  woolen  cards,  pins, 
needles,  linen  and  woolen  cloth,  and  for  the  erection  of  rolling  and 
slitting  mills,  furnaces  for  the  manufacture  of  steel  and  iron,  paper 
mills,  salt  works,  and  for  refining  sulphur."  Lossing.  Vol.  2,  p.  582 ; 
see  also  C.  R.,  Vol.  9,  p.  1,185  and  Vol.  10,  pp.  216-219.  Immediately 
manufactures  sprung  into  existence. 


I^^OTES  ON  Colonial  I^oeth  Carolina  1700-1750.     51 

lu  1722  there  were  nine  precincts  in  North  Carolina,  and 
an  act  of  that  year  provided  for  the  erection  of  court-houses 
at  the  following  places : 

For  the  Precinct  of  Chowan  at  Edenton ; 

For  the  Precinct  of  Perquimans  at  Jonathan  Phelps  Point 
at  the  Mouth  of  the  ISTarrows; 

For  the  Precinct  of  Currituck  on  the  land  of  Mr.  William 
Peyner  next  to  the  land  of  Mr.  William  Parker;  or  at  Mr. 
Parker's,  "as  the  justices  shall  appoint" ; 

For  the  Precincts  of  Beaufort  and  Hyde  at  Bath  town; 

For  the  Precinct  of  Craven  at  New  Bern; 

For  the  Precijict  of  Carteret  at  Beaufort  town ; 

For  the  Precinct  of  Bertie,  now  by  this  Assembly  laid  out 
at  some  convenient  place  at  Ahotsky  where  the  Justices  shall 
appoint. 

For  the  Precinct  of  Pasquotank  at  such  place  as  the  Jus- 
tices shall  appoint. 

Hyde  was  afterwards  separated  from  Beaufort  a 
and  built  a  court-house  of  its  own.  In  the  next  few 
years  the  following  additional  counties  were  erected.  On  the 
site  of  old  Clarendon  ISTew  Hanover  (1728)  was  established. 
From  New  Hanover  were  formed  Onslow  (1734)  and  Bladen 
(1734)  and  Duplin  (1749).  From  the  territory  of  old  Bath 
County  was  erected  Edgecombe  (1733)  Johnston  (1746) 
and  Granville  (1746).  Beaufort,  Hyde  and  Craven  having 
been  previously  made  therefrom.  From  Albemarle  the  Pre- 
cincts of  Pasquotank,  Currituck,  Perquimans,  Chowan,  Ber- 
tie and  Tyrrell  had  been  taken,  and  from  it  Northampton 
was  also  erected  in  1741.  All  court-houses  built  in  the  vari- 
ous precincts  were  required  by  law  to  be  at  least  24  feet  long 
and  16  feet  wide,  h 

The  "Precincts"  were  changed  to  "Counties"  in  1738. 


n  Laws  1 720,  Cli.  P.. 

h  Lnws  1722,  Ch.  S,  Sec.  5. 


52     XoTEs  ON  Colonial  Xorth  Cakolixa  1700-1750. 

In  1749  realizing  that  the  colony  was  becoming  too  im- 
portant to  continue  to  have  a  migratory  capital  an  act  was 
passed  fixing  the  seat  of  government  at  Xew  Berne  and  ap- 
pointing John  Starkey,  Edward  Griifith  and  Jeremiah  Yail 
Commissioners  to  erect  necessary  public  buildings.  At  this 
time  circuit  courts  were  established ;  a  commission  appointed 
to  revise  and  print  the  laws;  the  militia  better  regulated;  a 
list  of  taxables  arranged  for;  and  £6000  appropriated  for 
public  schools.  Direct  trade  had  recently  been  opened  from 
the  Cape  Fear  to  Europe,  every  ship  brought  high  class  immi- 
grants, and  a  new  era  had  dawned  for  the  colony.  All 
the  roads  and  trails  to  ISTorth  Carolina  from«South  Carolina, 
Virginia  and  Pennsylvania  were  filled  with  the  wagons  of 
the  home-seeker.  The  growth  of  Xorth  Carolina  from  this 
time  forward  for  the  next  half-century  was  probably  the 
most  remarkable  in  the  history  of  American  Colonization. 


The  following  extracts  from  a  table  in  Holmes'  Annals, 
Vol.  2,  page  543,  of  exports  to  Great  Britain  and  imports 
from  Great  Britain  is  most  interesting: 


Exports  to  G.  B.  Imports  from  G.  B. 


1701. 
1710. 
1720. 
1730. 
1740. 
1750. 
1773. 


Carolinas, 

B. 

£. 

s. 

d. 

16073 

6 

3 

20793 

9 

0 

62736 

6 

8 

151739 

17 

6 

266560 

4 

5 

191607 

6 

3 

456513 

8 

4 

£. 

s. 

d. 

13908 

8 

3% 

19613 

18 

11% 

18290 

12 

11 

64785 

11 

5 

181821 

14 

11 

133037 

0 

9 

344859 

9 

1 

XoTES  o^  Colonial  J^oetii  Caeolina  1700-1750.     53 


New  England. 

Expoi 

•ts  to  G.  B. 

Imports  from  G.  B. 

£. 

s. 

d. 

£. 

s.      d. 

1701. 

3265G 

7 

2 

86322 

13   111/4 

1710. 

31112 

17 

m      ■ 

106338 

6         4 

1720. 

40206 

12 

6 

128767 

2       11 

1730. 

54701 

5 

10 

208196 

5          5 

1740. 

72389 

16 

2 

171081 

2          5 

1750. 

48455 

9 

0 

343659 

6          8 

1773. 

124624 

19 

6 

527055 

15        10 

In  1773  the  exports  from  the  Carolinas  greatly  exceeded 
the  exports  of  Georgia,  J^ew  York,  'New  England  and  Penn- 
sylvania. Virginia  and  Maryland  alone  exceeded  us,  and 
probably  more  than  half  the  ISTorth  Carolina  exports  were 
shipped  from  Virginia  waters  and  classed  as  Virginia  pro- 
ducts. 


Exports  to  G.  ] 

B.  1773. 

Imports  from  G. 

B. 

£. 

s. 

d. 

£. 

s. 

d. 

Carolina, 

456.513 

8 

4 

344.859 

9 

1 

Georgia, 

85.391 

1 

8 

62.932 

19 

8 

Xew  England, 

124.624 

19 

6 

527.055 

15 

10 

Xew  York, 

76.246 

12 

0 

289.214 

19 

7 

Pennsylvania 

36.652 

8 

9 

426.448 

17 

3 

Va.  and  Md., 

589.803 

14 

5 

328.904 

15 

8 

1369.232 

4 

8 

1979.416 

17 

1 

APPENDIX. 


As  illustrative  of  couditions  iu  the  Colonial  period  the  following 
extracts  from  wills  will  prove  interesting : 

WILLS. 

LIONEL  READING,  Bath  County,  July  12,  1708,  probated  Feb- 
ruary, 1725.  Item.  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  well  beloved  Son  Na- 
thaniel Reading  the  said  plantation  after  his  mother's  decease  *  *  * 
and  one  feather  Bed  with  Furniture,  with  a  hand  Mill.  *  *  *  The 
Same  not  to  be  paid  out  of  his  own  Cattle  wch  are  of  a  different  mark 
from  mine  which  by  record  appears.  Item  I  give  &  bequeath  to  my 
Daughter  Sarah  *  *  *  the  youngest  of  my  horses  now  running  in 
the  Woods    *    *    *    ." 

THOMAS  POLLOCK  of  Chowan  County,  1721.  Plantations  aggre- 
gating about  55,000  acres  of  laud.  The  names  of  some  of  them  as 
follows :  "Five  hundred  and  sixty  acres  in  the  fork  of  Raquis  called 
Springfield ;  *  *  *  Yixe  hundred  acres  of  land  lying  on  the 
South  Side  of  Moratock  River  called  Canecarora ;  *  *  *  six 
hundred  and  forty  acres  of  land  *  *  *  on  Bridges  Creek  at 
Weekacanaan  A  tract  of  land  containing  Two  thousand  eight  hun- 
dred acres  Lying  on  Cassayah  called  Rose-field ;  *  *  *  Nine 
hundred  Acres  of    Land    on  Neuse    River    fork    Called  New-Bern. 

*  *  *  Where  Wilson  lived  at  Weekacoou  Creek :  and  where  John 
Mainard  lived  at  Pettishore  also  two  thousand  four  himdred  acres 
called  Crany  Island ;  *  *  *  Seven  Hundred  and  Ten  acres  Lying 
on   the  North  side    of  Trent   River   Called    Ye   Halfe-Way    House. 

*  *  *  also  six  hundred  and  Forty  acres  on  Nuse  River  Called 
Wilkeson's  Point." 

About  eighty  slaves  were  bequeathed  the  names  of  some  of  which 
are  as  follows:  Scipio,  Abraham,  Diego,  Mingo,  Venus,  Ctesar, 
Caramante  Will,  Sharper,  London,  Diana,  Tomboy,  Pompey. 

Land  on  Salmon  Creek  is  given  to  son  Thomas  "Reserving  free 
liberty  to  my  son  George  to  make  what  Pitch  and  Tar  he  sees  fitting 
on  the  same  with  his  hands  for  the  space  of  three  or  four  years 
after  My  Death."  Also,  "as  to  ye  crop  on  ye  Ground  and  what 
Pitch  and  Tar  ye  hands  in  ye  woods  makes  until  ye  first  of  Aprill 
Next  shall  be  Equally  divided,  etc." 

As  to  importations  from  and  business  dealings  with  New  England : 
"I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  son  Cullen  one  hundred  pound  to  be  paid 
in  Boston  and  also  five  thousand  foot  of  plank  which  I  have  sent 
for  from  Boston.  *  *  *  i  give  and  bequeath  unto  my  son  George 
sixty  pound  to  be  paid  in  Boston." 


XoTEs  OX  CoLoxixiL  XoETii  Cakolixa  1700-1750.     55 

"Also  I  give  and  bequeath  unto  my  Son  Thomas  one  Third  Part 
of  all  the  vessels  clearances  whether  it  be  in  money,  bills  to  New 
England  or  elsewhere 

also  I  give  and  Bequeath  to  my  Son  Cullen  six  Pound  to  be  paid 
him  in  the  first  goods  from  New  England  at  first  cost  I  owing  him 
so  much 

also  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  Son  George  twenty  pound  to  be 
paid  him  in  the  first  goods  I  have  come  in  from  Boston  I  oweing  him 
so  much."  "New  England  plank"  is  mentioned  two  or  three  times 
in  the  will. 

Codicil  provides  for  building  houses  for  sons  of  testator :  "And 
whereas  *  *  *  j  ii^ve  Expended  and  Laid  out  for  a  house  at 
Black  Rock  (when  mr  West  the  Carpentare  is  paid  what  is  due  to 
him  for  his  worke  ther)  for  my  son  Thomas  Twoe  hundred  Pound 
and  also  Ten  Pound  more  for  New  England  plank.  *  *  *  xud 
whereas  also  I  have  been  out  and  expended  upon  a  house  for  my 
son  Cullen  on  the  South  Shore  (when  mr  West  the  Carpentare  is 
paid  for  what  worke  he  hath  done  ther  (to  wit)  the  covering  of  the 
house  doeing  the  Dormant  Windoes  and  makeing  upe  the  Gavell  end 
of  the  Sd  House  and  when  Cullen  hath  what  Glass  is  in  the  House 
that  will  answer  his  purposes  and  what  nailes  he  shall  have  occa- 
sion for  said  House  *  *  *  In  my  accounting  above  in  this  co- 
dicill  concerning  Cullens  House  standing  in  Three  Hundred  Pound 
I  made  a  mistake  in  not  mentioning  that  mr  Coke  the  Bricklayer 
wages  for  making  Laying  the  Bricks  in  the  chimneys  Sellar  Uuder- 
pining  and  doeing  all  the  other  worke  agreed  for  is  part  of  the  Three 
hundred  Pound  and  is  to  be  paid  out  of  my  personall  estate.  Also 
he  is  to  have  what  lands  are  necessary  for  him  for  burning  the 
Bricks  or  what  other  worke  he  hath  occasion  for  to  finish  the  worke 
he  hath  agreed  for  wherefore  my  will  is  that  the  Bricklayer  aforesd 
be  paid  out  of  my  personall  estate  befor  Shared." 

JOHN  PIECLEFIELD'S  INVENTORY. 
1721 

*  *  *  One  Silver  Tankard  Weighing  1 :1b,  1  :Z  15  :pw  16  :gr 
Eight  Good  Spoons  Two  Dram  Cups  one  little  Spoon  One  do  broke 
One  do  large  melted  a  Seal  9Z  3pw  Total  of  the  weight  1  lb  lOZ 
18p  wl6gr  One  Silver  Hilted  Sword  one  pair  of  Buckles  not  weighed 
four  Diamond  Rings  two  plain  do.     *     *     * 

FREDERICK   JONES    1722. 

Chowan  Precinct.  *  *  *  "j  Give  devise  and  bequeath  unto  my 
Eldest  daughter  Jane  My  Indian  Girle  named  Nanny  My  Negro 
Woman  named  Dinah,  together  with  her  three  Children  and  all  the 
increase  that  shall  be  borne  of  any  of  them  Her  Mothers  Diamond 
wedding  ring  and  large  pair  of  Diamond  ear  rings.  Gold  Watch  with 
the  Chain,  Seal  &  other  things  fixed  thereto ;  her  Mothers  Wearing 


50     XoTKs  ox  Colonial  Xoirnr  C.viiOT.TXA  1700-1750. 

Appnrell  such  as  is  already  made  up  &  such  things  as  was  designed 
for  her  but  not  made  up,  All  her  Mothers  Child  bede  Linnen  with 
white  silk  Damask  Gown,  All  the  China  Ware  and  Tea  furniture 
with  the  Dressing  table  and  furniture.  Also  a  Dozen  of  my  finest 
Damask  Napkins  and  Table  Clothe  a  Dozen  of  fine  Diaper  Napkins 
&  Table  Clothe,  One  pair  of  my  finest  Holland  sheets  with  Pillow 
Cases:  and  one  other  pair  of  Holland  Sheets  with  Pillow  Cases. 
Item  I  give  devise  and  bequeath  unto  my  Daughter  Martha  Four 
young  negroes,  two  male  and  two  female,  not  under  ten  years  of 
age  to  be  set  apart  from  the  rest  of  my  Estate  for  the  use  of  my 
said  daughter  together  with  the  increase  thereof;  Also  the  smaller 
pair  of  Diamond  Ear-rings,  One  Diamond  Ring,  her  Mothers  Gold 
Shoe  Buckles  thimble  &  Bodkin  one  Dozen  of  my  finest  damask 
Napkins  and  table  clothe,  one  Dozen  of  fine  Diaper  Napkins  &  Table 
Clothe  One  pair  of  my  finest  holland  Sheets  &  pillow  Cases  and  one 
other  pair  of  holland  sheets  with  Pillow  cases ;  Also  the  Sum  of 
one  hundred  and  fifty  pounds  Boston  Money.  Item  I  give  devise 
and  bequeath  unto  my  daughter  Rebeckah  four  young  negroes  two 
male  «&  two  female,  not  under  ten  years  of  Age  to  be  set  apart  from 
the  rest  of  my  estate  for  the  use  of  my  said  daughter  together  with 
the  increase  thereof,  One  Diamond  Ring,  One  Dozen  fine  Damask 
Napkins  and  Table  Clothe,  One  Dozen  fine  Diaper  Napkins  and 
Table  Clothe,  Two  pair  of  fine  holland  Sheets  and  pillow  cases. 
Also  the  Sum  of  Two  hundred  pounds  Boston  Money.  *  *  * 
Item  I  give  devise  and  bequeath  unto  my  Eldest  Son  William  Hard- 
ing Jones,  all  my  land  on  the  South  side  of  Moratoke  River  being 
part  of  a  large  tract  of  nine  Thousand  one  hundred  acres  by  me 
taken  iip.  Also  all  my  lands  in  Hyde  precinct.  *  *  *  item  I 
Give  devise  and  bequeath  unto  my  Son  Frederick  Jones  all  my  Lands 
in  Craven  precinct.  *  *  *  Item  I  Give  Devise  and  bequeath 
unto  my  Son  Thomas  Jones  all  my  Lands  at  or  near  Meherrin 
Creek  in  Chowan  precinct.  Also  those  Lands  belonging  to  me  on  the 
North  Side  Moratoke  River.  *  *  *  item  I  give  unto  each  of  my 
Sons  one  Diamond  Ring;  Item  I  Give  unto  my  three  Sons  to  be 
equally  divided  among  them  all  my  I^ibrary  of  Books ;  Eycept  those 
books  commonly  used  by  my  wife,  which  I  have  ordered  to  be  put 
into  her  closets  which  books  I  give  unto  my  Daughter  Jane.  *  *  * 
Lands  lying  in  King  William  County  in  Virginia  commonly  called 
Horns  Quarter.  *  *  *  Item  I  Give  unto  my  Loveing  brother  Ten 
pounds  Sterling  to  buy  a  Suit  of  i[ourning.  *  *  *  A  Codicil  to 
be  annexed  to  the  Will  of  Frederick  Jones  Esqr.  I  Give  and  be- 
queath unto  my  daughter  Jane,  My  Wifes  Side  Saddle  and  furniture 
thereto  belonging  with  the  horse  called  Blaze.  To  my  daughter 
Martha  a  Sett  of  Silver  tea  spoons  double  gilded.  To  my  daughter 
Rel>eckah  two  pair  of  filigreen  gold  Shift  buckles  and  all  the  gold 
rings   and   Ear-rings.     *     *     *     To   my   good   friend  and   Neighbour 


Notes  on  Colonial  jSTokth  Carolina  1700-1750.     57 

Edward  Moseley  of  Chowan  precinct  my  pair  of  pistolls  mounted 
with  Silver  caps  etc.  *  *  *  ^yjj^j^  bridle  Locks  and  stocked  with 
English  Walnut." 

EMANUEL  LOW.  1726  Pasquotank  precinct.  "*  *  *  31y  I 
give  and  bequeath  unto  my  Grandson  George  Low  Son  of  my  be- 
loved Son  Nevil  Low  Dd  and  now  in  the  kingdom  of  Great  Britain 
the  Plantation  where  my  Cousin  Robinson  now  Lives  &  the  I'lan- 
tation  called  New  ABBey  with  four  Hundred  Acres  of  land  adjoin- 
ing to  it  to  *  *  *  also  my  Seal  Scutcheon  of  arms.  *  *  * 
Lands  commonly  called  the  Town  point  Lying  on  the  mouth  of 
the  North  West  side  of  Newbegun  Creek  &  now  in  the  possession 
of  Jno  Conner.  It  is  my  Will  that  my  daughter  Anna  Letitia  her 
heirs  or  assigns  shall  keep  in  possession  all  ye  before  mentioned 
Legacies  wth  Lands  &c  &c  &c  &c." 

WILLIAM  HARDING  JONES  1730. 

"of  ye  eastern  Parish  of  Chowan  *  *  *  do  give  *  *  * 
Ann  Jones  my  wife  *  *  *  One  certain  piece  or  parcel  of  Land 
containing  four  thousand  Acres  on  Ronoak  river  in  Bertie  Precinct 
it  being  that  Trackt  of  Land  out  of  wch  I  have  sold  three  hundred 
to  Ellis  Hodges  of  the  same  precinct  I  also  give  to  her  during  her 
natural  Life  the  house  and  plantation  whereon  I  now  live  with  all  & 
singular  the  rights,  hereditaments  appertenances  &  appendants  what- 
soever to  the  said  piece  or  parcel  of  Land  in  anywise  appertaining 
with  all  Cattle,  hogs,  horses,  sheep  belonging  to  the  said  plantation 
with  one  third  part  of  the  negroes  I  now  possess,  and  also  all  my 
household  goods  belonging  to  the  sd  house  Excepting  the  family 
pictures  and  Court  of  Arms.  *  *  *  likewise  all  my  books  in  ye 
sd.    house    I   give   to   my     brothers    Freddick    and    Thomas     Jones 

*  *     *      " 

JOHN   BAPTISTA   ASHE    1731. 

"of  Bath  County  in  the  province  of  North  Carolina  Gent.  *  *  * 
Item.  I  give  devise  and  bequeath  unto  my  Son  Samuel  and  unto 
my  daughter  Mary  my  Lands  up  the  north  west  branch  of  Cape 
Fear  River  called  Ashwood  which  are  situate  lying  and  being  on 
the  South  side  of  said  river  between  the  lands  of  John  Porter  of 
Virginia  Mercht,  and  the  Plantation  whereon  Daniel  Donahoe  lately 
deceased  dwelt,  Together  with  my  other  lands  on  the  north  Side  of 
the   River  directly   opposite  to  those   aforementioned  to   be   equally 

*  *  *  Item,  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  *  *  *  land  on 
Stumpy  Sound  called  Turkey  Point  *  *  *  other  tract  called 
Stump  Island.  Four  hundred  acres  of  land  *  *  *  on  the  Main 
Branch  of  Old  town  creek.  Item  I  will  that  my  slaves  be  kept  to 
work  on  my  lands  that  my  Estate  may  be  managed  to  the  best  ad- 
vantage  so   as  my  sons   may    have   as   liberal    an   education   as   the 


58     Notes  on  Colonial  ISTorth  Carolina  1700-1750. 

profits  thereof  will  afford;  and  in  their  Education  I  pray  my  Exors 
to  observe  this  method.  Let  them  be  taught  to  read  and  write  and 
be  introduced  into  the  practical  part  of  Arithmetick  not  too  hastily 
hurrying  them  into  Latin  or  Grammar  but  after  they  are  pretty  well 
versed  in  these  let  them  be  taught  Latin  »&  Greek.  I  propose  this 
may  be  done  in  Virginia ;  After  which  let  them  learn  French ;  per- 
haps some  Frenchman  at  Santee  wile  undertake  this ;  when  they 
are  arrived  to  years  of  discretion  Let  them  study  the  Mathematicks. 
To  my  Sons  when  they  arrive  at  age  I  i*ecommend  the  pursuit  & 
Study  of  Some  profession  or  business  (I  wish  one  to  ye  Law,  the 
other  to  Merchandize)  In  which  let  them  follow  their  own  inclina- 
tions. Item  I  will  that  my  daughter  be  taught  to  write  and  read 
&  some  feminine  accomplishments  which  may  render  her  agreeable ; 
And  that  she  be  not  kept  ignorant  as  to  what  appertains  to  a  good 
house  wife  in  the  management  of  household  affairs.  Item  I  give  to 
each  of  my  Exors  a  Gold  Ring  a  token  of  the  respect  which  In  my 
life  I  bore  them  Item  I  will  that  a  Brick  Vault  may  be  built  at 
Groveley  and  my  Dear  Wifes  body  taken  up  out  of  the  Earth  & 
brought  and  laid  therein;  and  if  it  should  be  my  fortune  to  die  in 
Carolina  so  as  my  Corpse  may  be  Conveyed  thither  I  desire  that 
one  large  Coffin  may  be  made  and  both  our  body's  laid  together 
therein  and  lodged  in  the  said  Vault." 

THOMAS  POLLOCK  1732. 

"of  Bertie  Precinct."  Plantations  called  Black  Rock,  Great  Quar- 
ter, Manuels  or  Crickits,  Springfield,  and  lands  lying  on  Salmon 
Creek  &  Chowan  River,  Trent  River,  Unaroye  Meadows,  "nigh  of 
Tuskarora  Indian  Town,"  Moratuck  River.  Fishing  Creek.  Forty 
six  negroes  are  bequeathed.  "Item  I  will  &  Order  &  give  by  this 
will  to  all  Such  persons  who  are  Setled  on  my  lands  at  Trenton 
Condition  of  a  Certain  writng  I  give  to  Jacob  Miller  that  those 
already  settled  there,  have  leases  on  ye  same  terms  I  promised 
them." 

JOSHUA  PORTER  1733. 

Bath  County.  Plantations  on  Derhams  Creek  one  known 
as  Sand  Hills.  Negroes,  Mustees  and  Indians  are  given  to 
wife,  and  mourning  rings  to  friends.  "It  is  my  further  will  and 
desire  that  my  Son  and  Daughter  may  be  Carefully  learnt  to  read 
&  write  &  Cypher  &  yt  they  be  duly  Educated     *     *     *     ." 

RICHARD   SANDERSON.      17.33. 

Perquimans  precinct.  "Ye  island  of  Ocreecock,"  land  on  the  Sandy 
Bank  "by  the  name  of  Point  Lookout";  "Manner  Plantation."  One 
hundred  and  forty  seven  acres  of  land  in  Perquimans;  lots  in 
Roanoak     Town     devised    to    son     Richard.      The    brigantine     "Sea 


XoTEs  ON  Colonial  Xortii  Carolina  1700-1750.     59 

Flower"    and    sloop    "Swallow"    are   given    to    son    and   son    in    law. 
Thirteen  negro  and  one  Indian  slave  bequeathed. 

FRANCIS   PUGH.      1733 

Bertie  precinct.  Provides  for  "bringing  up  my  children  at  School 
Plantation  at  Emperor's  Fields  bought  of  Christian  Hitteburch. 
"Whereas,  *  *  *  j  jj^^yg  begun  to  build  a  brigantlne  which  is 
now  in  the  Stocks  in  Bertie  precinct  *  *  *  flnish  and  Compleat 
the  said  Brigantlne  with  Anchors  Masts  Cables   Sails  &c." 

"Item  it  is  my  will  and  pleasure  that  after  the  said  Vessel  is 
finished  my  executors  &  my  Trustees  herein  named  do  *  *  * 
purchase  a  Loading  of  Tobacco  black  Wallnut  or  other  merchandise 
fitt  for  the  British  market  and  that  they  do  send  the  said  Vessel  to 
great  Britain  from  thence  to  return  to  No.  Carolina,     *     *     *     _" 

"Item  It  is  my  will  and  pleasure  that  after  my  Sloop  Carolina 
returns  from  New  England  that  my  Executors  &  Trustee  do  *  *  * 
purchase  a  cargo  and    send  the    said    Sloop    to    the    West  Indies 

"Item  It  is  my  will  that  my  dear  wife  &  Execrs  do  receive  from 
Captn  Grainger  the  Cai-go  brought  in  a  Schooner  into  this  province 
which  belongs  to  Mr.  Coleman  provided  the  said  Grainger  allows  to 
my  Execrs  twelve  pounds  pr  Barrel  for  good  &  well  pickled  pork 
vizt  for  so  much  as  is  produced  from  my  own  stock     *     *     *      " 

THOMAS   SWANN     1733 

Pasquotank  precinct.  Two  plantations  are  conveyed  to  sons  Sam- 
uel and  William  with  the  provision  that  if  either  shall  sell  or  con- 
vey his  part  "out  of  the  name  of  ye  Swanns"  the  other  shall  enter 
and  take  possession.  Provision  is  made  for  "ye  Christian  education 
of  my  Children."     Horse,  bridle  and  saddle  is  given  to  each  of  two 

sons. 

EDWARD  SALTER.     1734. 

Bath  County.  Plantation  on  Pamplico  river  "called  in  the  patent 
Mount  Calvert ;  six  hundred  and  forty  acres  of  land  on  Bear  creek. 
About  twenty  negro  slaves  bequeathed.  To  daughter  Sarah  is  be- 
queathed forty  three  cattle  and  horses,  one  hundred  pounds  "of  the 
said  Province  bills  or  their  value" ;  Madam  Sarah  Porter  is  men- 
tioned as  having  care  and  tuition  of  daughter.  To  three  children  is 
given  "my  largest  periauger  with  anchors  and  sails."  "Item  I  be- 
queath unto  my  son  in  law  John  Harvey  Ten  pounds  in  order  to 
purchase  him  a  good  Beaver  Hat  and  a  pair  of  gloves.  *  *  * 
Item  I  bequeath  unto  my  beloved  son  Edward  Salter  my  best  Saddle 
and  bridle  and  one  pair  of  Silver  Spurs  and  Richard  Bloom's  his- 
tory of  the  Holy  Bible  together  with  all  the  books  that  I  shall  own 
at  my  Death  (be  they  Divinity,  History  or  Mathematical)  *  *  * 
also   my   large   China   Punch   Bowl.     *     *     *     My   will    is   that    my 


GO     XoTEs  ON  Colonial  ISTokth  Caeolina  1700-1750. 

Brigantine  now  on  the  stocks  at  John  Smiths  be  got  finished  and 
made  fit  for "  the  Sea  as  soon  as  may  be  *  *  *  be  loaden  with 
tar  *  *  *  (for  Boston).  *  *  *  My  will  further  is  that  my 
Executors  may  wi'ite  two  or  three  ways  *  *  *  ^q  Collo.  Jacob 
Windall  and  Company  to  Insure  the  sum  of  Twelve  Hundred  pounds 
(Boston  Money)  upon  the  said  Brigantine  *  *  *  _"  Money 
arising  from  the  sale  of  the  brigantine  to  be  "remitted  in  youngeable 
slaves  (none  to  exceed  the  age  of  twenty  years)."  Provision  is 
made  for  education  of  children  and  for  Edwai'd  "a  thorough  educa- 
tion to  make  him  a  compleat  merchant." 

EDWARD  BRYAN.     1745. 

To  sons  John,  Edward  &  William  is  given  land  purchased  of 
Martin  Frank  called  "New  Germany";  lots  (3)  in  Newbern  town 
with  a  store  house  on  one  of  them ;  plantation  on  the  west  side  of 
Swifts  Creek  called  Paradice.  Sixteen  negro  slaves  bequeathed. 
Lai'ge  number  of  cattle  and  horses  bequeathed — five  riding  horses. 
Provision  is  made  for  Seven  years  schooling  for  children  the  school- 
ing to  be  given  them  at  some  time  between  the  ages  of  seven  and 
seventeen  years. 

EDWARD  MOSELEY.     1745. 

New  Hanover  County.  Plantation  at  Rockey  Point  containing 
3500  acres;  Plantation  in  Chowan  County  containing  2000  acres; 
plantation  on  the  North  East  branch  of  Cape  Fear  River  containing 
3500  acres  lying  between  Holly  Shelter  Creek  and  the  "bald  white 
Sand  hills"  ;  plantation  opposite  Rockey  Point  plantation  containing 
1650  acres ;  12S0  acres  at  Rockfish  Creek ;  600  acres  on  the  East  Side 
of  the  North  West  branch  of  Cape  Fear  River;  lot  and  houses  in 
Brunswick;  plantation  below  Brunswick  called  Macknights;  lot  & 
house  in  Wilmington ;  600  acres  of  land  opposite  Cabbage  Inlet ; 
500  acres  in  Tyrrell  called  Coopers;  4.50  acres  in  Tyrrell  called 
Whitemarsh;  lands  on  East  side  Cape  Fear  River;  plantation  at  the 
Sound  where  "there  is  a  large  vineyard  Planted ;  3200  acres  in 
Edgecombe  called  Alden  of  the  hill ;  1650  acres  on  West  side  of  Neuse 
River  "about  twenty  four  miles  above  New  Bern  town ;  10,000  acres 
in  Edgecombe  County  called  Clur ;  aggregating  about  35,000  acres. 
88  slaves  bequeathed.  "Item  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  Loving 
wife  Anne  my  New  Chaise  Harness  and  the  Pair  of  Bay  horses 
Smoker  and  Toby.  *  *  *  j  r,igQ  gjyg  unto  her  out  of  my  stocks 
ten  cows  &  ten  calves  ten  steers  of  Different  ages  &  Twenty  sheep 
and  the  horse  Spark. 

*  *  *  It  is  my  will  that  the  slaves  usually  kept  about  the 
house  shall  be  kept  in  the  same  employment  for  my  Wifes  easier 
life  and  care  of  my  children  untill  she  marries.  *  *  *  Item.  I 
give  unto  my  six  children  all  my  Stock  of  horses  Mares  neat  cattle 
sheep  and  swine  to  run  &  increase  for  ther  benefit  and  I  will  that 


ISToTEs  ON  Colonial  IvTortii  Carolina  1700-1750.     61 

proper  slaves  be  appointed  for  managing  thereof  of  whicli  increase 
&  px'ofit  made  thereby  of  such  as  are  necessary  to  be  sold  or  killed 
at  proper  seasons  Accot  to  be  rendered  to  the  County  Court  for  my 
children  advantage  without  charges  deducting  first  thereout  what 
may  be  necessary  for  such  kind  of  provision  for  housekeeping  for 
my  said  wife  and  children.  Item  It  is  my  will  that  the  profits 
arising  from  the  labour  of  my  two  sons  slaves  &  their  part  of  the 
profits  arising  by  the  stocks  be  laid  out  in  purchasing  young  female 
slaves  to  be  added  to  their  stocks  of  slaves.  *  *  *  item.  When 
it  shall  be  necessary  to  give  all  or  any  of  my  sons  other  Education 
than  is  to  be  had  from  the  Common  Masters  in  this  Province  for  I 
would  have  my  children  well  educated  it  is  then  my  will  &e  &c  &c. 
Item.  I  recommend  it  to  my  dear  and  loving  wife  that  one  of  my 
sons  as  shall  be  Thought  best  qualified  for  it  be  bred  to  the  Law  it 
being  highly  necessary  in  so  large  a  Family  and  to  him  I  give  all 
my  Law  books  being  upwards  of  200  Volumes.  *  *  *  Item.  I 
give  to  my  dear  wife  Blomes  History  of  the  Bible  in  folio,  three 
volumes  in  folio  of  Archbishop  Tillotsons  works,  four  Volumes  in 
Octavo  of  Dr.  Stanhopes  on  the  Epistles  &  Gospels  and  all  the  books 
of  Physick.  Item  I  give  to  my  daughter  Ann  Humfries  3  volumes 
in  folio  on  the  Old  &  New  Testament  and  I  will  that  my  Exors  buy 
for  her  the  work  of  the  author  of  the  Whole  Duty  of  Man  I  give  to 
the  eldest  of  my  sons  that  shall  not  study  the  law  Chambers  Dic- 
tionary two  Volumes  in  folio  Locks  Works  three  volumes  in  folio 
Millers  Dictionary  two  volumes  in  folio  and  LeBlond  on  Gardening 
in  Quarto :  and  the  rest  of  my  books  about  150  volumes.  *  *  * 
Item  I  give  *  *  *  my  large  Silver  Tea  Kettle,  Lamp  &  Server 
for  it  to  stand  on  weighing  in  all  about  170  ounces  *  *  *  my 
Large  Silver  Coft'ee  Pot  *  *  *  my  Large  Silver  Tea  Pot  *  *  * 
my  Large  Silver  Tankard  *  *  *  a  pair  of  large  Square  Silver 
Servers,  my  cases  of  knifes,  forks,  spoons.  Salts,  Casters  &  Other 
my  Plate  to  be     *     *     * 

OULLEN  POLLOCK.     1719. 

Tyrrell  County  Gen.  Plantation  at  Matchapungo  River  in  Hide 
County,  lott  of  land  in  Bath  town ;  710  acres  of  land  on  a  branch 
of  Trent  River  called  "the  halfe  way  House"  ;  1280  acres  lying  on 
Coneto  Creek  in  Tyrrell  County  called  the  "deaded  Woods" ;  640 
acres  in  Bertie  County  on  "ye  Roonaroy  IMeadows"  ;  4700  acres  in 
Bertie  County ;  aggregating  about  8000  acres.  78  negroes.  "Item 
It  is  my  will  and  desire  that  my  three  daughters  have  as  good  Edu- 
cation as  can  be  had  in  this  Province  &  that  my  two  sons  when  they 
have  got  what  learning  they  can  have  in  this  province  that  they  be 
sent  to  Boston  for  further  education     *     *     *     _" 


02     XoTEs  o^^  CoLOK^iAL  XoKTH  Cakolixa  1700-1750. 

ROGER   MOORE    1750. 

New  Hanover  County,  Parish  of  St.  Phillips,  1750.  Plantations 
called  Kendall,  Maultby's  Point,  Mount  Misery;  Orton  Lands  lying 
on  Island  opposite  Black  River.  2500  acres  where  Mill  stands,  640 
acres  at  Rockey  Point,  55.000  acres  in  the  Neck  known  as  Mount 
Misery,  3025  acres  in  Saxpahaw  Old  Fields,  5000  acres  near  Eno  Old 
Fields,  and  20,000  acres  mentioned  in  latter  part  of  will,  aggregating 
about  100,000  acres ;  250  slaves  mentioned.  To  each  of  daughters 
is  bequeathed  eighteen  hundred  pounds.  Testator  mentions  saw  mill 
"I  entend  to  build  on  Brice's  Creek." 

"It  is  my  will  that  each  of  my  daughters  Mary  and  Anne  doe  at 
their  marriage  take  each  their  choyce  of  any  One  of  the  House 
slaves,  except  the  Negro  wench  Bess  who  I  leave  to  her  liberty  to 
make  choyce  of  any  one  of  my  children  for  her  Master  or  Mistress." 

GABRIEL  JOHNSTON   1751. 

Plantations  called  Possum  Quarter,  Conahoe ;  1000  acres  on  Cy- 
press Creek,  980  acres  on  South  side  of  Trent,  400  acres  on  the  head 
of  Trent  and  New  Rivers,  7000  acres  on  Deep  River  in  Bladen  Co., 
"all  the  small  islands  lying  in  Roanoke  River  and  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Mount  Gallard,  land  on  Salmon  Creek  in  Bertie  County." 
*  *  *  my  said  Wife  shall  have  the  use  of  all  my  said  Daughters 
plantations  and  for  her  Encouragement  to  Cultivate  &  Improve 
these  Plantations  especially  in  Raising  Silk.  *  *  *  And  I  earn- 
estly request  my  Dearest  wife  to  be  a  kind  tender  mother  to  my  Dear 
little  girl  and  to  bring  her  up  in  the  Fear  of  God  and  under  a  deep 
sense  of  her  being  always  in  his  presence,  and  in  Sobriety  and  moder- 
ation Confining  her  Desires  to  things  plain  and  neat  and  Elegant 
and  not  aspiring  after  the  Gayety  Splendor  and  Extravagances  and 
especially  to  take  Care  to  keep  within  the  bounds  of  her  income  and 
by  no  Means  to  Run  in  Debt.  *  *  *  It  I  give  and  bequeath  to 
Henry  .lohnston  now  at  school  in  Newhaven  in  the  Colony  of  Con- 
necticut. *  *  *  ]\jy  Books  I  leave  to  William  Cathcart  Esqr. 
after  my  Wife  and  Brother  have  choose  out  them  any  Number  not 
Exceeding  forty  each.  It  To  my  sister  Elizabeth  Smear  of  the 
County  of  Fife  North  Britain  my  large  Repeating  Gold  Watch  after 
it  h;is  l)een  put  in  order  at  the  Expence  of  my  estate." 

JOHN    BLOUNT    1753. 

Chowan  County.  One  plantation.  "  *  *  *  i  give  and  be- 
queath *  *  *  Three  negroes,  viz ;  Sharper,  Finn  &  Tom,  with  all 
my  brewing  kettles,  tubs  and  Fxts  and  all  my  brewing  works  and 
my  writing  Desk  *  *  *  My  desii-e  is  that  my  Chaise,  Boat, 
Blacksmith's  tools,  watch  and  other  tools  or  anything  else  that  is 
likely  to  perish  be  sold  *  *  *  Item.  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my 
brother   Charles   Blount   my   best  Broad  Cloth   Suit  of   Clothes   my 


N"oTEs  OK  CoLo^N^iAL  XoETH  Caeolina  lTOO-1750.      63 

best  Beaver  Hatt  &  Wigg.  My  will  is  that  noue  of  the  timber  should 
be  cut  or  Sold  excepting  for  the  use  of  the  plantation  and  that  no 
Stranger  shall  be  admitted  to  live  on  any  part  of  the  Back  Land 
to  destroy  the  Timber,  and  that  no  Person  shall  on  any  consideration 
whatsoever  be  admitted  to  live  on  any  part  of  my  Land  Excepting 
an  Overseer.  *  *  *  that  no  other  negroes  shall  be  permitted 
to  work  on  my  plantation  excepting  they  are  the  property  of  my 
wife  and  children. 

And  my  will  is  that  all  the  money  that  shall  arise  out  of  my 
Estate  *  *  *  should  be  laid  out  to  purchase  likely  young  ne- 
groes at  the  Discretion  of  my  Executors  for  the  use  and  Benefit  of 
my  children."  Provision  is  made  for  the  education  of  the  children 
in  "a  Christian  like  manner." 

SAMUEL   SWANN   1753. 

Perquimans  County.  450  acres  of  land  "where  I  now  dwell"  and 
"Allegator  land."  "I  give  to  my  Daughter  Mary  Claton  my  pickle 
case  and  Bottles.  Item  I  do  hereby  give  to  my  brother  John  Vail 
my   Silver   Seal   and   Stock   Buckle." 

JAMES    INNES.      1754. 

"In  the  name  of  God,  Amen.  I  James  Innes  of  Cape  Fear  in 
North  Carolina  in  America  Coll  of  the  Regiment  of  sd.  Province 
Raised  for  His  Majesty's  imiuediate  service  and  Commander  in 
Chief  of  this  Expedition  to  the  Ohio  against  the  French  &  there 
Indians  whoe  have  most  unjustly  Invaided  &  fortified  themselves 
on  His  Majesty's  lands — Being  now  readdey  to  Enter  upon  Action 
*  *  *  I  recomend  the  paying  of  all  my  Just  and  Lawfull  Debts 
instantly,  or  when  demanded.  I  direct  a  remittance  may  be  made 
to  Edinburgh,  Sufficient  to  pay  for  a  Church  Bell  for  the  Parish 
Church  of  Cannesby,  in  Caithness  agreeable  to  my  Letter  to  mr. 
Jams  Broadee  Minister  there. 

I  also  appoint  and  direct  that  there  may  be  a  furder  remittance 
made  of  One  hundred  Pounds  Sterll :  for  the  use  of  the  Poor  of  said 
Parish  of  Cannesby  &  the  said  Summ  of  One  hundred  Pounds  to 
be  put  at  interest  for  the  use  of  the  poor  of  Said  Parish  as  foi-merly 
directed  by  me. 

I  also  give  and  bequeath  att  the  Death  of  my  Loving  Wife  Jean 
Innes  my  Plantation  called  Point  Pleasant  &  the  Opposite  Mash 
Land  over  the  River  for  which  there  is  a  Separate  Patent,  Two 
negro  young  Women,  One  Negroe  Young  man  and  there  Increase 
all  the  Stock  of  Cattle  and  Hogs,  halfe  the  Stock  of  Horses  belonging 
att  the  time  to  that  Plantation  With  all  my  Books  &  One  hundred 
Pounds  Sterling  or  the  Equivalent  thereunto  in  the  currency  of  the 
Country  For  the  use  of  a  Free  School  for  the  Benefite  of  the  Youth 


64     ]S'oTES  ON  Colonial  ISTokth  Carolina  1700-1750. 

of  North  Carolina.  And  to  see  that  this  part  of  my  will  is  dewly 
executed  att  the  time,  I  appoint  the  Colonell  of  the  New  Hanover 
Regiment,  the  Parson  of  Willmington  Church  &  the  Vestrey  for  the 
time  being,  or  the  majority  of  them  as  they  Shall  from  time  to  time 
be  Choised  or  Appointed." 

SARAH   ALLEN,    1761. 

Legacies:  "Wedding  ring  to  Niece  ("as  a  particular  mark  of  my 
affection  and  a  memento  of  my  Conjugal  happiness,  not  doubting  hers 
is  equal  and  may  it  be  as  lasting."  Gold  watch,  gold  chain  mourning 
ring.  Silver  chased  tea  kettle,  cream  pot,  lamp.  "Walnut  tree 
Sneered  Tea  chest  containing  three  pieces  of  plate  chased  as  the 
tea  kettle" ;  Silver  waiters,  dozen  tea  spoons  and  strainer  in  black 
Shagreen  case ;  Silver  Sauce  pan,  mahogany  dressing  table,  gilt 
smelling  bottle ;  "books  of  modern  taste." 

ELIZABETH   SCOLLAY  17GG. 

Bertie  County.  "  *  *  *  j  Give  and  Devise  unto  my  son 
Ouleln  Pollock  all  my  Books,  also  a  mouning  ring."  Several  ne- 
groes are  bequeathed  to  different  relatives.  "  *  *  *  I  give  and 
devise     *     *     *     my  still  with  the  appurtenances     *     *     *     ." 

WILLIAM   HERRITAGE.      1769. 

Craven  County.  Plantations  called  Springfield,  Jemmys  Neck, 
Harrow,  Atkins  Banks,  Fort  Barnwell ;  lands  in  Johnson  County,  lots 
Nos.  21,  22,  191  and  84  in  the  town  of  Newbern.  About  seventy 
five  negro  slaves  bequeathed  the  names  of  some  of  which  are  as 
follows :  Pompey,  Venus,  Phillis,  Balaam,  Ca'sar,  London,  Big  Rose, 
Big  Bess,  Mercury,  Tortola,  Cado,  Tamer,  Judy,  Jupiter,  Sabina, 
Peter  ("a  cooper"). 

Raleigh,  N.  C,  September  1,  1905. 


INDEX. 


PAGE. 

Allen,    Sarah 04 

Aceoiieechy — town     17 

Albeniavle    7 

Alteration    of    l)ran(l — penalty 34 

Arclidale    i)recinet 10 

Ashes     21 ,  35 

Ashe,    John    Baptista 22,  51 

Asseml)ly — Qualification    of    members 43 

Baehe,    Prof 38 

Bancroft — On  motives  for  settlement  of  Colony 7 

Connnents  on  State  by 6 

Barbadian    settlers 15 

Barlowe    13 

Bath — Port    of    entry 38 

Chosen  as  capitiil 38 

Bath  county — Extent  of 10 

Seat  of  Tuscarora   War 10 

Beaufort    county 10 

Blount,  John    02 

Tom  and  James 17 

Blounts     21 

Bottom    lands 21 

Bounties     23, 50 

Boyd,    Adam 10 

Brands  or  Marks — Penalty   for   alteration 34 

Brick     2() 

Brickell    20,  40,  48 

Brunswick     25 

Bryan,    Edward 00 

Bryans    21 

Burial — customs     (note) 42 

Burial    places 42 

Burrinstou,    (Jovernor S,  10,  21,  28,  .33,  .34.  38.  .39,  44 

Byrd.    Wm 9,  24 

Cape  Fear  Mercury  estal)lished 10 

Beginnin.i?  of  settlements  on 18 

Cape  Fear  country  :  Home's  ccmnnent  on 13 

Capital— established    52 

Carolina — Limits  under  second  charter 12 

Cattle    and    Hogs— Exports    of 34 

Jlarks   and    l)rands ,34 

Chalmers,   George— Obstructs    search    for   pai)ers (5,  8 

Saunders'    connnents    on 5 

(-heeweo — fort    1<> 

Chocowinity     K! 

('howans    17 

(^hurch — established    41 

Climate  :  Emmons'   connneut  on 12 

Commodities — rate    of 2!) 

Conneghta — fort     IT 

(Conscience — freedom    of 11 

Convicts  sold  as  servjints 32 

Cotton — exports    of 48 


66  Index 

PAGE. 

Counties — created    52 

Court  Houses — Speoifieations  for 51 

Court  Houses  and  Precincts 51 

Courts    52 

Craven  county 16 

Currency  29 

Culture — evidence   of 20 

Davis,  James — establishes  first  newspaper 9 

(ieor.se,  J.,  and  Jno 35 

Direct  trade  opened 52 

Dissenters    41 

Dobbs,    Governor 45 

Early    settlers 15 

Eastern  North  Carolina — climate  and  soil 12 

Education     20. 40 

Education  of  orphans 40 

Emi.sJ'ation   of   Tuscaroras IT 

Enuiions.  Dr. — comment  on  climate 12 

English    settlers 15 

Entry — ports    38 

p]xports  and   imports 23.  52 

Forts — Conneglita    17 

Cheeweo    10 

Indian   near   Bear   Creek 10 

Nakay    l(i 

Tahunta    17 

Hookerooka     17 

Totero    17 

Resootska     IC. 

Forster,    Robert 21 

Franks,    Martin .  21.  22 

Gales    • 21 

Gale.    Christopher 22 

French    (Huguenot)    settlers 15 

German   (I'alatine)    settlers 15 

Glenn,  R.  B..  Governor 9 

J.  I)..  General 9 

Green.    Bartholomew 10 

Griffith.    Edward 52 

Grimesland    Plantation 10,  40 

Hancock's   town 17 

Heccletield    Jolm — Inventory 55 

Herritages    21 

Herritase,   William 04 

Hogs  and  Cattle — marks  and  brands 34 

Exports    of 34 

Hogs — Breeding  of 34 

Home,  Robert — Conunent  on  Cajte  Fear  country 13 

Horses — breeding    of 34 

Houses — si)ecifications    for 22,  25 

Still    standing 20 

Of    i)lanters 20 

Hyde    Precinct !<> 

Hyrne,    Edward 35 

Immigration     19, 52 

From    Scotland 10 

Indentured  Servants 32 

Imports   and  Exports 


r.o 


Index.  67 

PAGE. 

Inlets    38 

Independence — motive  for  settlement  of  colony 7 

Indians — rewards    for ID 

Tribute    17 

Indian    Chiefs Ig 

Indian    Wars 18,  10 

Indian    captives 18,  19 

Indian    towns 17 

Indian    slaves 18 

Indian  Kings 17 

Indian  fort  on  Bear  Creek 10 

Innes,    James 9,  G3 

Interests — rate    of 30 

Inventories  and  Wills,  as  material  for  history 11 

Iron  Mills,  forbidden 50 

Johnstons    21 

Johnston,    Gabriel 8,  (B 

Johnston,  Town 25 

Jones,  Frederick    21 

Thomas    35 

Wm.    Harding 57 

Kelley,  W.  D. — Comment  on  North  Carolina 13 

King  Blount's  town 17 

Keeouwee — town    17 

Labor — demand    for 28 

Lands — Rules  for  entering 22 

Landholders— large    21,  35 

Intiuence    of 19,  20 

Laws — Revision  and  printing 52 

Lawson — Account  of  second  settlement 14 

Lillingtons     35 

Lists  of  taxables 52 

Lovick,    John 21,  31 

;\Ianor    Houses 28 

Manufactures    48, 49 

Marriages    41,  42 

Maules    21 

William     21 

Dr.   Patrick 21 

Mills    50 

Encouragement    of 50 

Militia    regulated 52 

Moores     21,  35,  35 

Roger     21,  31,  G2 

Maurice    21 

Moselevs    21, 35 

Moseley,    Edward 21.  31,  t!0 

Newbern    24 

Nakay— fort    K! 

New    England   settlers It) 

Newton 25 

Newsi)aper   controversy 10 

Newspaper — their    establisher 10 

Second  in  colony 10 

North   Carolina    Magazine   and    I'niversal    Intelligencer   estali- 

lished 0 

North  Carolina  :  Limit  aftin-  separation  from  S.  C 12 

Limit    under    consideration 12 


68  Index. 

PAGK. 

N.  C.  Gazette  and  Weekly  Post-Boy  established 10 

Ordinaries  and  Tipplinj;  houses 41' 

Oci'aeoke — port  of  entry ;W 

Orphans — education    of 40 

Overseers    22 

Wages    of , 22 

Packet    Boats 45,  4t) 

Panipticough    I'recinct K! 

Parks,    William 10 

Phillips,    Eleazer 10 

Phmtations — Manufactures    on 4S 

Self-sustaining    47 

Planters — wealth  in  slaves 2S 

Pollocks    21 

I'olloek,    Tnllen 22.  .",1.  01 

Thomas    22.  24.  r)4.  HS 

Population — growth    of IS 

In    1700 K; 

In  1715,  1730,  17r>s is 

Porters    21,  35 

Porter.    John IC.  22.  31.  35 

Joshua     oS 

Ports— lack    of 3(> 

Ports  of  entry 38 

Postal    service 44 

Post-office  and  branches 45 

Postal    rates    (notes) 45 

Post    routes 45.  40 

Precincts  and  Court  Houses 51 

Printing    0.  10 

Proclamation    money .'to 

Public  Schools — appropriation  fir 52 

Pugh    Francis 50 

Quakers — disciualification    of 41 

Reading,    Lionel 54 

Religion    40. 41 

Resootska     1  < ! 

Roads    43 

Road    system 41 

Salter.    Edward 5') 

Sanderson,    Ricliard 5X 

Saunders,  W.   L. — Comments  on   Chalmers 5 

Scottish    immigration 1<i 

Second   settlement — I^awson's    ;!ccount   of 14 

Self-rule — Colonv  relinquished  t') 0 

Schools    40.  52 

Scliollay,    Elizal)eth 04 

Servants — Indentured     -'2 

Slaves— tithable    32' 

Execution    of 31 

Disposition    of "n 

Families  kept  together •"'l 

Owners — large    ••! 

Names    of 32 

Indian    1'^ 

Silk — exports    of 40 

Culture    -t"> 

Cxrass     ( note) ■+•• 


Index.  69 

PAGE. 

Social    life ■ 21,  47 

Sothel     C.  7,  21 

Speculation— In   land   forlMfldon 22 

Stephenson,    William 22 

Stewart,  Andrew — established  second  newspaper 10 

Starkey,    John 52 

Stock— breeding    20,  3,3 

Diseases    of 33 

Mismarking — penalty    for 34 

Swanns     21, 85 

Swann,    Samuel <;■; 

Thomas 5!) 

Snpponees     17 

Tahunta — fort     17 

Tar,    etc 2  5 

Taxables — Provision   for    listing 52 

Timothy's    Southern   Gazette 10 

Tippling — Houses    and    Ordinaries 42 

Tobacco     23 

Over    production Md 

Restrictions  on  exjiort 37 

Tookerooka — fort 17 

Totero— fort    IT 

Towns — Acconeechy     17 

Hancocks     17 

Keeouwee    17 

Ucolmerunt    (King    IMwunf  s  ) 17 

Uharee    17 

Trade,   direct   opened 52 

Tryon     30.  l(i,  47 

Tuscarora  War — Population  at  Iieginninix 1(> 

Effects    of 17 

Seat    of If) 

Tuscaroras — Emigration     17 

Reservation     17 

Ucolmerunt — King    l>lount' s    town IT 

Uharee — town     17 

Universal   Intelligencer  and  N.   ('.   Mi!g;izine  estaidishcd V) 

I'sury — Penalty   for    , •"'<' 

Ve.ssels — trading    •'5 

Vails    21 

Vail.    Jeremiah 5:; 

Voters — Qualification    for 25,  43 

Wars — Tuscaroras    l'> 

Waterways     3r. 

Wickham    Precinct 1*' 

Whitemarsh,    Thomas 10 

Williamson — Interference  of  riialmers  witii <> 

Wills— Extracts    from 54-i;4 

Wills  and  Inventories — as  material  f'li-  history 11 

Wimble    37 

Winslow     '■•* 


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